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Spiritual Discernment And Vocational Counseling Paper

2767 words - 12 pages


Effect of Medication and Psychotherapy on Children with Attention Deficit Disorder

Liberty University

COUN 502


The purpose of this research was to see the effect of medication and Psychotherapy on children with Attention Deficit Disorder and to see the most effective treatment options that are available today. Although many articles support that medication helps manage ADHD symptoms, there are many studies demonstrating that therapeutic interventions along with have medication have been more effective in helping children manage ADHD symptoms without the need of medication alone.
David is a six year old-that was ...view middle of the document...

It is characterized by developmentally inappropriate impulsivity, inattention, and in some cases, hyperactivity. This disorder becomes apparent in childhood. ADHD is one of the most common behavioral disorders in children and adolescent psychiatry (APA, 2000).
According to the Center of Disease Control and Prevention, ADHD was formerly known as attention deficit disorder, or ADD. In 1994, it was renamed ADHD and broken down into three subtypes, each with its own pattern of behaviors. Three types of ADHD are defined in the DSM, Predominantly Inattentive Type, which the clients displays the following symptoms; fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes, does not appear to listen, has difficulty sustaining attention, easily distracted, lack organization skills and avoids or dislikes tasks requiring sustained mental effort. Predominantly Hyperactive/Impulsive type display the following symptoms; fidgets with hands or feet, difficulty remaining seated, runs around or climbs excessively, often blurts out answers before questions have been completed, often interrupts or intrudes on others. Combined type, the individual meets both inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive criteria (National Institute of Mental Health, 2010).
According to the National Institute of Mental Health one of the difficulties in diagnosing ADHD is that it is often found in conjunction with other problems. These are called coexisting conditions, and about two thirds of kids with ADHD have one. Coexisting means that children with ADHD symptoms also displaying other symptoms of different disorders. The most common coexisting conditions are: Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD), at least 35% of kids with ADHD also have oppositional defiant disorder. About haft of children with ADHD have Learning Disabilities.
According to the National Institute of Mental Health, scientists have not found the origin of ADHD, although many studies demonstrated that genes play a large role into the cause of ADHD. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) conducted a research on children had carried the ADHD gene. These children with ADHD who carry a particular version of a certain gene had thinner brain tissue in the area of the brain associated with attention. NIMH research showed that the difference was not permanent, however, as children with this gene grew up, the brain developed to a normal level of thickness and their ADHD symptoms improved. The department of Psychology at the University of Saskatoon, Canada, conducted a study that suggested a potential link between cigarette smoking use during pregnancy and ADHD in children. Researchers are also looking at possible environmental factors, and are studying how brain injuries, nutrition, and the social environment might contribute to ADHD. Experts have shown that food additives may play a role in ADHD. A recent research indicates a possible link between consumption of certain food...

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