Structure Of Kidney Essay

1088 words - 5 pages

Kidney is a bean-shaped organ and measures 10-12cm. Each kidney is covered by a dense irregular connective tissue capsule. Excretory systems regulate solute movement between internal fluids and the external environment. The kidney, the excretory organs of vertebrates is the mammal’s principal organ of excretion and osmoregulation. Osmoregulation regulates solute concentrations and balances the gain and loss of water. Thus, regulation of the osmotic concentrations of blood plasma by the kidneys ensures the osmotic regulation of all other body fluids. Excretion gets rid of many toxic metabolic waste products, particularly the nitrogenous compound urea. The mammalian excretory system centers on ...view middle of the document...

The mammalian kidney has two distinct regions which is an outer renal cortex and inner renal medulla. Renal cortex contains renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule and distal convoluted tubule. Renal medulla contains loop of Henle and collecting duct. Cortex is covered with a connective tissue capsule and adipose tissue while the medulla comprises a number of renal pyramids. Nephron consists of two major components which are the renal corpuscle and renal tubule. Renal corpuscle is a combination of two structures which are the glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule. Glomerulus is a ball of capillaries that surrounded by a double layer of epithelial cells. Endothelium in glomerular capillaries is porous and highly permeable to many small substances in blood but not permeable to plasma protein and blood cells. Bowman’s capsule consists of a single layer of flattened cells resting on a basement membrane. It is derived from the distended, blind end of the renal tubule. The inner layer of the capsule consists of highly modified and branching epithelial cells called podocytes while the outer layer of the capsule consists of simple squamous epithelium which is continuous lining to the renal tubule. In the renal corpuscle, filtration occurs as blood pressure forces fluid from the blood in the glomerulus into the lumen of Bowman’s capsule. Water and low molecular weight molecules are filtered from the glomerulus into Bowman’s capsule that surrounds and receives filtrate from glomerulus to form the glomerular filtrate. The filtrate may contain salts, glucose, amino acids, vitamins, nitrogenous wastes and other small molecules. The filtrate is then passes into renal tubule.
Renal tubule has a convoluted shape and has four distinct histologic zones, each of them has different role in tubular function. The portion of renal tubule that begins at the renal corpuscle which is the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) is the longest and most convoluted tubule. This tubule is located in cortex and descends into medulla to become continuous with loop of Henle. It is responsible for the reabsorption of ions, water and nutrients of the glomerular filtrate. The presence of microvillus (brush border) on the PCT greatly increases their surface area and facilitates the absorption of filtered material. The brush borders distinguish the PCT from distal convoluted tubule (DCT) where DCT has shorter and sparse microvillus...

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