Grand Canyon University
Concepts In Community and Public Health
The communicable disease that I have selected is Tuberculosis (TB). The purpose of my paper in to describe, in detail the communicable disease and its impact on the global nations over time. It also addresses the role of a community health nurse in breaking the chain of infection and preventing the spread of the deadly disease.
On March 24, 1882, Dr. Robert Koch announced the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB). During this time, TB killed one out of every seven people living in the United States and Europe. ...view middle of the document...
The names of the medications used include: isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF) and rifapentine (RPT) and pyrazinamide(PZA) Treatment for active TB consist of taking several drugs for 6 to 9 months. If they stop taking the drugs too soon, they can become sick again; if they do not take the drugs correctly, the TB bacteria that are still alive may become resistant to those drugs. TB that is resistant to drugs is harder and more expensive to treat.
World studies show that a third of the population is affected by the TB virus. This is an astounding number to me. In Canada the reported number of cases of Tuberculosis in 2012 was 1,686 an increase of 4% from the previous year. Foreign born people accounted for the majority of the reported cases. And the incident rate per 100,000 population remained highest among Canadian born Aboriginal peoples. The three provinces with the highest numbers were British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec. A total of 9,945 TB cases (a rate of 3.2 cases per 100,000 persons) were reported in the United States in 2012. Both the number of TB cases reported and the case rate decreased; this represents a 5.4% and 6.1% decline.
Determinants of TB include poverty and substance abuse. A lack of medical care for homeless peoples needed to diagnose and treat TB predisposes this group to death from TB. Weakened immune systems, for instance, HIV patients, or those receiving cancer treatment, or drugs to prevent transplant organ rejection are as well a determinant of this health issue. People living in overcrowded areas or travelling to Africa, India, China, Russia or Pakistan are at risk. Health care workers in residential care facilities, prisons, refugee camps or shelters which have poor nutrition and unsanitary conditions predisposes themselves to the disease. As a case manager for rural home care we perform assessments on clients awaiting long term care placement. A TB screen including a chest x ray is part of the admission package. The guidelines around TB in long term care facilities have become more alert TB.
The epidemiological triangle for TB includes an agent, host and suitable environment
The Agent for TB is the mycobacterium tuberculosis which is a bacterial pathogen responsible for the disease. The Host is the person who comes in contact with the disease and has certain qualities which predisposes someone to contracting such as, low immunity, poor nutrition, current disease, certain occupations like health care workers in facilities, race including, First Nation people, or East Indian populations from India. The Environmental conditions which promoted TB include crowding, poor sanitation, poor ventilation, water contamination and elevated humidity. When all three of epidemiological triangle are present, the higher the risk for disease development.
The role of the community health nurse in breaking the cycle of TB includes, primary health promotion which decreases the...