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Studying Impact Of Prenatal Participation In The Wic Program

1074 words - 5 pages

Studying the Impact of Prenatal WIC Participation on Infant Mortality

Grand Canyon University
Introduction to Nursing Research
NRS-433V
Kathy Skromme
August 15, 2014

Studying the Impact of Prenatal WIC Participation on Infant Mortality
Infant Mortality is a barometer of a community or nation’s health. Globally the poor have higher infant mortality rates (IMR) than those with greater resources. In the United States, there are many programs designed to bridge the gap between the poor and rich, and reduce infant mortality in those with less access to resources. Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is one such program and has had substantial impact on IMR in the poor in the US. The ...view middle of the document...

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Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) was started in 1972 as a supplemental nutritional program. The services of the program included supplemental food, health services, and nutrition counseling for low income pregnant women, breastfeeding and non breastfeeding mothers as well as infants and children who are at risk for nutrition. . (Khanani, Elam, Hearn, Jones, & Maseru, 2010). More than 9.17 million women and children participated in WIC, in the Fiscal year 2010. (USDA, 2014). WIC offers a range of resources that may affect birth outcomes, including immunization screenings, breastfeeding promotion, and referrals for prenatal care, pediatric care and social services.
The study performed by Khanani et al. used a retrospective cohort design. Files were obtained which contained prenatal WIC participation for women that lived in Hamilton County, Ohio from 2005-2007. Mothers were counted separately who had more than 1 pregnancy in the study period. 18,091 women enrolled in WIC in the prenatal period, their infant outcomes were linked with infant birth and death records. Information such as gestational age, race/ethnicity, and mother’s behavioral risk factors were used. Mothers with multiple gestations were excluded. The data collected on participants in WIC was compared to the data of women who did not participate in WIC in the same county, which were 14,585 births. A Visual Basic program (Microsoft Corporation, WA) was used to match the data in both categories.
The subjects were not approached directly and their data was utilized in a confidential unbiased format. There are glaring differences in the levels of health experienced by the poor and wealthy, as well as between racial divides. It is ethically sound to explore these issues when attempting to find solutions to such problems as well as directing future funding and program development. This study meets the standards of ethical research, and has continued validity as solutions to high IMRs are explored.
After analyzing all the data it was found that 94 deaths were matched with the pre-natal WIC group participants and 190 deaths were linked with the non-WIC comparison group. There were no variations noted between the two groups as far as rates of chronic hypertension or diabetes (P>.05). However, the prenatal WIC group were less likely...

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