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System Unit Essay

3240 words - 13 pages

Chapter 4 Objectives
Differentiate among various styles Differentiate among various styles of system units of system units Identify chips, adapter cards, and other Identify chips, adapter cards, and other components of aamotherboard components of motherboard Describe the components of aaprocessor and how Describe the components of processor and how they complete aamachine cycle they complete machine cycle Identify characteristics of various personal Identify characteristics of various personal computer processors on the market today computer processors on the market today Define aabit and describe how aaseries of bits Define bit and describe how series of bits represents data represents ...view middle of the document...

4.04 Fig. 4-1

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p. 4.03 Fig. 4-2

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The System Unit
What is the motherboard?
Main circuit board in system unit Contains adapter cards, processor chips, and memory chips Also called
adapter cards processor chip

The System Unit
What is a chip?
Small piece of semi-conducting material on which integrated circuits are etched Integrated circuits contain many microscopic pathways capable of carrying electrical current Chips are packaged so they can be attached to a circuit board
Click to view animation dual inline packages (DIP) holds memory chips

memory chips

system board

memory slots Expansion slots for adapter cards

pin grid array (PGA) package holds processor chips

motherboard

p. 4.04 Fig. 4-3

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p. 4.04 Fig. 4-4

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Central Processing Unit
What is the central processing unit (CPU)?
Interprets and carries out basic instructions that operate a computer
Control unit directs and coordinates operations in computer Arithmetic logic unit Input (ALU) performs Devices arithmetic, comparison, and logical operations
Processor
Control Control Unit Unit Arithmetic Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Logic Unit (ALU) Information Data Information

Central Processing Unit
What is a machine cycle?
Four operations of the CPU comprise a machine cycle
Step 1. Fetch
Obtain program instruction or data item from memory

Memory

Data

Memory
Information Data Information

Information

Output Devices

Step 4. Store
Write result to memory
Processor

Step 2. Decode
Translate instruction into commands

Also called the processor

ALU

Step 3. Execute
Carry out command

Control Unit

Storage Devices
p. 4.05 Fig. 4-5
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p. 4.06 Fig. 4-6

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Central Processing Unit
What is pipelining?
CPU begins fetching second instruction before completing machine cycle for first instruction Results in faster processing

Central Processing Unit
What is a register?
Temporary high-speed storage area that holds data and instructions
Stores location from where instruction was fetched Stores instruction while it is being decoded Stores results of calculation Stores data while ALU computes it

p. 4.07 Fig. 4-7

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p. 4.07

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Central Processing Unit
What is the system clock?
Controls timing of all computer operations Generates regular electronic pulses, or ticks, that set operating pace of components of system unit
Pace of system clock is clock speed Most clock speeds are in the gigahertz (GHz) range (1 GHz = one billion ticks of system clock per second)

Central Processing Unit
How do personal computer processors compare?
Comparison of Widely Used Personal Computer Processors
Name Itanium® 2 Xeon ™ Itanium® Pentium® 4 Pentium ® III Xeon ™ Pentium ® III Celeron ® Operon™
Click to view video

Date Introduced 2002 2001 2001 2000 1999 1999 1998 2003 2002 2001 1999

Clock Speed 1 GHZ and up 1.4–2.4 GHZ 733–800 MHZ 1.4–2.53 GHZ 500–900 MHZ 400 MHZ–1.2 GHZ 266 MHZ–1.8...

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