Tamu Geol 101 Final Study Guide

4880 words - 20 pages

Geology 101 Final Study Guide

CHAPTER 1 (why study earth)
• Earth = 4.5 billion years old
• Earth System- composed of geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere
• Hypothesis- an explanation of the problem that accounts for existing data and predicts additional phenomena that should exist if the hypothesis is correct
• Principles/Laws- synonymous terms referring to statements or mathematical formulas that always succeed in describing what is observed to happen
• Theory- a widely applicable/ generally accepted explanation for natural phenomena that explains all of the existing data
• Principle of uniformitarianism- states that observations of both a ...view middle of the document...

▪ Magma= below surface, lava= above surface
▪ Two general kinds of igneous rocks…
• Volcanic- (extrusive) / Plutonic- (intrusive)
▪ Slower crystallization forms larger crystals (mostly made up of silicate minerals)
• Massive- geologic term to describe rocks that lack layering
o Metamorphic rocks- form when minerals in preexisting rocks change in response to temperature, pressure, fluid composition, or all three (metamorphic processes)
▪ Widespread occurrences at convergent plate boundaries
• Neptunist view- emphasized the existence of a cold earth earth where nearly all rocks formed by chemical precipitation from water (Abraham Werner)
• Vulcanist view- described an inherently hot planet where rocks formed from the fusing of particles by heat, or from the solidification of magma rising from a molten interior (James Hutton)
• Rock cycle- describes the interrelationship of the 3 rock types (pg. 54)

CHAPTER 4 (formation of magma/ igneous rocks)
▪ Pyroclastic materials- sticky blocks of broken apart magma that are exploded out of volcanoes, which then solidify to glass and fall to earth
o Bombs- largest fragments
o Lapilli- intermediate
o Volcanic ash- smallest fragments
▪ Composition (minerals present) and texture (size of mineral grains) provide a framework for naming igneous rocks
o Vesicles- gas bubbles in magma, preserved in volcanic rock
o Magma contains dissolved gasses, where in lava, most of them have escaped
▪ Composition – divided into 4 categories
o Felsic- mostly feldspar and quartz silica rich minerals………………….. light colored
o Intermediate- biotite, pyroxine, plagioclase feldspar
o Mafic- low silica content w/magnesium and iron (ferric) minerals….... dark colored
o Ultra mafic- almost all olivine and pyroxine
▪ Texture- (determined by mineral cooling rates)
o Aphanitic- fine grained texture (quick cooling)
o Phaneritic- coarse grained texture (bc magma cools slowly in a deep intrusive environment) (slow cooling)
o Porphyritic- some large crystals, surrounded by smaller ones (when magma starts to crystallize slowly at depth, then moves into colder environments near surface)
▪ Plutons- plutonic rock bodies exposed at surface after rock on top is eroded
o Dikes/ sills- tabular intrusions which are extensive in two dimensions but relatively thin in the third dimension (dikes- cut across sed. layers/ sills- parallel )
o Batholiths- solidify at depths of a few km and are exposed by substantial uplift/erosion
o Volcanic neck- formed when cylindrical pipes of magma that feed volcanoes; exposed by erosion of the rocks left in the pipes
o Lava domes- extreme feature created when lava does not flow at all but merely squeezes out to form large...

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