TEACHING EMERGENT LITERACY
Emergent literacy is a term that is used to explain a child's knowledge of reading and writing skills before they learn how to read and write words
The basic components of emergent literacy include:
* Print motivation: Being interested in and enjoying books.
* Vocabulary: Knowing the names of things.
* Print awareness: Noticing print, knowing how to handle a book, and knowing how to follow words on a page.
* Narrative skills: Being able to describe things and events and to tell stories.
* Letter knowledge: Understanding letters are different from each other, knowing their names and sounds, and recognizing letters everywhere.
* Phonological ...view middle of the document...
During reading, they might monitor their understanding, adjusting their reading speed to fit the difficulty of the text and "fixing" any comprehension problems they have. After reading, they check their understanding of what they read.
3. Graphic and semantic organizers
Graphic organizers illustrate concepts and relationships between concepts in a text or using diagrams. Graphic organizers are known by different names, such as maps, webs, graphs, charts, frames, or clusters.
Regardless of the label, graphic organizers can help readers focus on concepts and how they are related to other concepts. Graphic organizers help students read and understand textbooks and picture books.
Graphic organizers can:
* Help students focus on text structure "differences between fiction and nonfiction" as they read
* Provide students with tools they can use to examine and show relationships in a text
* Help students write well-organized summaries of a text
4. Answering questions
Questions can be effective because they:
* Give students a purpose for reading
* Focus students' attention on what they are to learn
* Help students to think actively as they read
* Encourage students to monitor their comprehension
* Help students to review content and relate what they have learned to what they already know
The Question-Answer Relationship strategy (QAR) encourages students to learn how to answer questions better. Students are asked to indicate whether the information they used to answer questions about the text was textually explicit information (information that was directly stated in the text), textually implicit information (information that was implied in the text), or information entirely from the student's own background knowledge.
5. Generating questions
By generating questions, students become aware of whether they can answer the questions and if they understand what they are reading. Students learn to ask themselves questions that require them to combine information from different segments of text. For example, students can be taught to ask main idea questions that relate to important information in a text.
6. Recognizing story structure
In story structure instruction, students learn to identify the categories of content (characters, setting, events, problem, resolution). Often, students learn to recognize story structure through the use of story maps. Instruction in story structure improves students' comprehension.
Summarizing requires students to determine what is important in what they are reading and to put it into their own words. Instruction in summarizing helps students:
* Identify or generate main ideas
* Connect the main or central ideas