Teaching Passive Voice to the Adult Students Using Inductive Approach
Dr. Dil Afroze Quader
IML, Dhaka University
Md. Rezaul Islam
IML, Dhaka University
The passive voice is an important grammatical structure that appears in every form of written and spoken English. Knowledge of this construction is vital for reading and writing English in everyday life. This paper introduces an inductive approach to English Passive teaching that can help students to rediscover their subconscious knowledge of English passive and bring it to consciousness, as the grammar of a language is acquired through abstracting a set ...view middle of the document...
Discussions on how and why to teach grammar have often been linked to theories of implicit and explicit instruction. Some theorists such as Krashen (1982; Krashen& Terrell, 1983) argued that learners could acquire a language implicitly through enough exposure to comprehensible input,
rejecting the need to teach formally the linguistic features of a FL. Others have insisted that it was essential for learners to notice the various forms of the language in order for the input to be processed, thus claiming that some form of explicit instruction was necessary (Schmidt, 1995; Swain, 1984, 1998; VanPatten, 1996). Researchers and classroom instructors approach the teaching of grammar with various strategies. While there seems to be a consensus on how to implement a deductive approach, i.e., the instructor explains the rule before practicing the use of the target structure, inductive instructional approaches have been implemented in various ways. Some rely on students to discover the rules by themselves (Shaffer, 1989). Others rely on focusing students’ attention on the targeted grammatical structure through an oral practice session followed by the completion of a model sentence (Herron & Tomasello, 1992). Adair-Hauck, Donato, and Cumo-Johanssen (2005) developed a four-stage approach to teaching grammar: the PACE model. PACE relies on the use of an integrated discourse or story that serves to highlight a linguistic structure and its usage in context. More precisely, P stands for Presentation of the target form through a contextualized story where the structure appears naturally and repeatedly within the story. After this initial input presentation, Attention to form is given: The instructor focuses students’ attention on a particular pattern of the language through a practice session including several examples. In the Co-construction phase, the instructor asks a series of guiding questions to engage learners in a collaborative understanding of the rule or explanation governing the target structure. Finally, instruction ends with an Extension activity, which gives students the opportunity to practice the linguistic structure that has just been discussed. The goal of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of the hybrid guided inductive approach on student learning of passive. While the current study used the same research design and procedures as implemented in previous studies, it targeted a new population of learners: adult students of Bangladesh.
Verbs are said to be either active (The executive committee approved the new policy) or passive (The new policy was approved by the executive committee) in voice. In the passive voice, the subject of the sentence is not a do-er, but is acted upon by some other agent or by something unnamed (The new policy was approved). The English passive has been notoriously difficult for EFL learners. However, a review of past literature indicates that little attention has been given to the...