Technology, Society, and Culture
Introduction: Robotic Surgery
Robotic surgery is the latest development that uses robots and computer aided apparatus to aid in normal surgical procedures. It is a new technology and mostly used in well-developed countries. With robotic surgery a single surgeon is able not only to perform multiple surgeries but also do his/her work from any part of the world (McConnell, Schneeberger & Michler, 2003).
Robotic surgery is a type of procedure that is similar to laparoscopic surgery. It also can be performed through smaller surgical cuts than traditional open surgery. There are small precise movements that are possible with ...view middle of the document...
I. What is Robotic Surgery?
A. Robotic Surgery, computer-assisted surgery, and robotically assisted surgery are terms for technological developments that use robotic systems to aid in surgical procedures.
B. Robotically assisted surgery was developed to overcome both the limitations of minimally invasive surgery or to enhance the capabilities of surgeons performing open surgery.
II. History of Robotic Surgery
A. In 1985 a robot, the PUMA 560 was used to place a needle for a brain biopsy using CT guidance.
B. In 1988, the PROBOT, developed at Imperial College London, was used to perform prostatic surgery.
C. In 1992 to mill out precise fittings in the femur for hip replacement.
III. Associated Science with Robotic Surgery
A. Robots are or will assist urologists with transurethral resection of the prostate, percutaneous renal access, laparoscopy, and brachytherapy.
B. The goals of the robots are to facilitate and improve the techniques and procedures of urological surgery.
IV. Political Point of View of Robotic Surgery
A. Communication and engagement
B. Regulation and governance
C. Ethical considerations
D. Looking for applications
E. The wider landscape
V. Legal Influences of Robotic Surgery
A. Legal aspects are likely to pose obstacles to the developments
B. Promotional materials overestimate the benefits of Robotic Surgery
C. Should a surgeon be held liable for errors related
While surgical robotics will have an important impact on surgical practice, it presents challenges are so much in the monarchy of Political and legal laws as of medicine and health care.
VI. Economical considerations for the use of robotic surgery
A. Brief economic definition/overview.
1. The use of scarce resources to do more.
B. The economics of robotic surgery.
1. The goal: “Keeping patients ‘whole’ and fully functional after surgery” while reducing complications and costs.
VII. The costs of robotic surgery equipment
A. Material investment.
B. Training investment.
C. Higher cost per surgery.
D. Annual cost of equipment maintenance.
E. New and unproven technology.
VIII. The benefits of robotic surgery
A. Smaller incision = less physical damage from surgery.
B. Heart surgery via small incision vs. opening the chest.
C. Shorter recovery time = less days in hospital bed and less cost.
D. Reduces risk of complications by 20 percent or more from traditional surgery.
E. Newer technology provides better operating precision and 3D camera view to surgeon, allowing better and more precise surgery to patient.
IX. Economic conclusions of robotic surgery
X. Description of the Technology
A. Science that drove the technology
The science that drove the development of...