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Texas Ooh Dnr Essay

3336 words - 14 pages

Do-Not-Resuscitate: Legal and Ethical Issues
HCA 322 Health Care Ethics & Medical Law

Do-Not-Resuscitate: Legal and Ethical Issues
Most cultures value life and bringing persons back from the dead is a popular subject of many fictional books. However, as technology evolves and the story of Frankenstein reborn with a bolt of lighting has come true with the external or implanted defibrillators, the natural process of death slows as much of society gains the knowledge to live longer than nature intended. The Red Cross Association taught many organizations like the girl and boy scouts the methods of mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and ...view middle of the document...

During this time of incapacitation, the intentions of the patient are important innecessitating the resuscitative/CPR order. However, in an emergency, a controversy centers on who should have the authority over the making of the DNR decision (Olver, I., and Elliott, J., 2008). Many concerns about the conflicting legal and ethical issues of the Do Not Resuscitate ordersubsist because of the potentialdeprivation in quality of care and themoral value of life. These apprehension s are present because of the uncertainties that lay between the doctorsand family for the decision-making authority over the patient.
Legal/Ethical Issues of DNR
Originally, the DNR was a response to the confusion in situations involving CPR. When a person in cardiac arrest goes to a hospital or a paramedic gives emergency medical care to a person in their home, the default practice is to give life-saving CPR. Refusing to performCardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR on a person in critical status is the same as doing nothing to save a life, which holds the possibility of murderous act unless the individual holds proof of the do not resuscitate or DNR directive. Yet, actual CPRperformed on persons with cardiac arrest “almost never works” and when a patient has a DNR order, there exists some confusion about care and risks receiving “sub-optimal care” (Murphy, P., & Price, D., 2007). The ethical dilemmas the medical profession confrontsin the interpretations of the DNR order in regards to delivery of duty to care are numerous. Hospitals implement ethics committees to assist in sorting out a patient’s legal rights and ethical issues when physicians, family and patients are at a medical impasse.
Ethics committees utilize an unbiased, theoretical approach to inform and assist in the decision-making by using several principles to guide the decision-making process. The principle of Beneficence is to prevent harm, do right unto others and show compassion and non-maleficence, which is avoidance of imposing harm on an individual. The principle of justice is the fairness of treatment in benefits and risks or distribution of resources. The principle of autonomy, anindividual's right to decide what is best for him or her. Autonomy can override beneficence when life-support is withdrawn (Prozgar, 2010). In addition, when a physician takes the position of withdrawing life-supporting equipment, the principle of non-maleficence is severed. Since helping patients die violates the physician’s virtue of duty to save lives,” distributed justice is served by releasing a room in the intensive care unit for a patient who has a higher chance of resolving their medical problems (Pozgar, G. 2010).There are so many inflict fuzzy gray areas and ideas about conflicting DNR policies that political disputes had to go to the courts to sort out the issues legally.
Though ethics committees have been helpful, scores of physician-patient disagreements end up in the U.S. court...

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