Text-analysis based on functional approach
According to Christiane Nord, translation is "the production of a functional target text maintaining a relationship with a given source text that is specified according to the intended or demanded function of the target text (translation skopos).â€ (Christiane Nord, 1991, Text Analysis in Translation, Amsterdam, p.28.) In order to turn out a consistent, concise and appropriate translation, to all the translators text-analysis is a must.
Iï¼Ž The Importance of Text analysis
The source text provides the offer of information that forms the starting point for the offer of information formulated in the target text.
1.1 The role of Text analysis
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According to Reiss, the ideal translation would be one "in which the aim in the target language is equivalence as regards the conceptual content, linguistic form and communicative function of a source language textâ€ (1977, translation in 1989:112) and "text typologies help the translator specify the appropriate hierarchy of equivalence levels needed for a particular translation skopos (cj. Reiss and Vermeer 1984:156).In order to "enable your text/translation to function in the situation in which it is used and with the people who want to use it and precisely in the way they want it to functionâ€ (Vermeer 1989a:20, my translation), we have to be sure of the text types and its corresponding text functions.
2.1 K. Reiss's classifications of text types. They are:
1) "Informativeâ€ texts: to convey information, knowledge and opinions etc.; content-centered.
2) "Expressiveâ€ texts: to convey the author's feelings, manifesting aesthetic value of language; form-centered.
3) "Appellative or operativeâ€ texts: to induce or to persuade the receivers to respond in a particular way or take action; appeal-centered.
Reiss states that the conveying of the source language function is the deciding factor to judge a translation and she suggests that we should employ different translation strategies according to different text types.
2.2 Christiane Nord's text functions. They are:
1) The Referential Function in Translation
The referential function of an utterance involves reference to the objects and phenomena of the world or of a particular world, perhaps a fictional one. It may be analyzed according to the nature of the object or referent concerned. If the referent is a fact or state of things unknown to the receiver the text function may consist in informing the reader.
2) The Expressive Function in Translation
This refers to the sender's attitude toward the objects and phenomena of the world which may be subdivided according to what is expressed to: an emotive sub-function, an evaluative sub-function and an irony one etc. ; sender-oriented.
3) The Appellative Function in Translation
Directed at the receivers' sensitivity or disposition to act, the appellative function is designed to induce them to respond in a particular way.
Direct indicators of the appellative function would be features like imperatives or rhetorical questions. Yet the function may also be achieved indirectly through linguistic or stylistic devices that point to referential or expressive function, such as superlatives, adjectives or nouns expressing positive values; receiver-oriented.
It is obvious that different communicative functions may require different translation strategies. Nord states that "a translation is a kind of target-culture representation or substitute for a source-culture text. As such, it may carry out quite different functions with regard to the source.â€
IIIï¼Ž Examples and corresponding translation strategies