The Bourgeois Ideology Essay

1986 words - 8 pages

Political Phil.The Bourgeois IdeologyHegel was the first to know, "every philosophy...belongs to its own time and is caught in that time's restriction." However that raises the question: How can a philosophical outlook stay alive after its "time" has passed? The answer is taken beyond philosophical argumentation to a deeper penetration of its own time. This is why the key to what is alive in Hegel's thought lies in Marx's critique of it (Marx-Engels Reader p. 5).First, there must be an understanding of Marx's critique. It is closely bound with Hegel's idea of sublation, or aufheben - which is to negate, and thereby to preserve the inner truth of something (Ibid p.35). It is similar to Marx's ...view middle of the document...

So Marx's critique of Hegel is an assessment of philosophical science. He concludes that philosophy cannot answer the questions that philosophy brings to the surface. In the end, these questions are not philosophical but practical. Marx claims that his work is scientific (Knowledge and Human Right ch. 3). However, this did not mean that he was elaboration a set of doctrines, of theories, but that, by tracing the contradictions of existing science to their roots in the inhuman way in which humans lived; he could bring to light the necessity to revolutionize that way of life (Marx-Engel Reader p. 85). To shift from contemplation would be to move to more revolutionary solutions.Yet this has little to do with the old story about Hegel the idealist and Marx the materialist, about Marx's transition from "idealism" and "democracy" to "materialism" and communism, or about Marx dropping Hegel's conservative system to preserve his revolutionary method. If one accepts the collection of prejudices that were once called "Marxism", one is prevented from even beginning to establish an answer to the initial question.Throughout his life, Marx continually looks toward Hegel, each time deepening both his differences and his agreement. Marx commences his critique of Hegel's summary of the history of political philosophy, the Philosophy of Right. After presenting that Hegel's conception of the modern state is based upon bourgeois economic relations, Marx can identify Hegel's standpoint with that of political economy. It is now that he can begin his critique of the achievements of bourgeois economic thought as the highest expression of inhumanity of bourgeois society. At each stage of his work, Marx uses his study of Hegel to penetrate to the essential connection between the philosophical attitude to the world and the oppressive, exploitative, inhuman nature of alienated social forms (Ibid p. 452-454).Marx's Doctoral Thesis, which he works on between 1839 and 1841, is on "The Difference between the Democratic and Epicurean Philosophies of Nature." His way of dealing with these two Greek atomists contradicts the opinions of Hegel - along with almost everyone else - in that it emphasizes the originality of Epicurus (Knowledge and Human Right ch. 3). Marx declares that his aim is to find the source of human self-consciousness and ideas in material reality (Marx-Engel Reader p. 109). The other is his contention that philosophy must circle outwards to the world. Finding that existence does not measure up to fundamental nature, it must become practical, and turn its will against the world of appearance. Moreover, the world confronting a philosophy total in itself is a world torn a part (Ibid p. 35, 39). This gives the direction of Marx's critique of religion. In opposition to Kant, Marx contends that religious belief is not just and illusion:All gods, the pagan as well as the Christian ones, have possessed a real existence. Did not the ancient Moloch reign? Was not the...

Other Essays Like The Bourgeois Ideology

The Problem of Rich and Poor

1147 words - 5 pages My Ma English 1A Prof. James Click 2-19-2014 The Problem of Rich and Poor For centuries, many philosophers have discussed the issue of class struggle. Karl Marx and Andrew Carnegie both developed theories of the unequal distribution of wealth a long time ago; however the only Carnegie’s ideology could apply to American society today. In “The Communist Manifesto”, Marx first introduces the two main social classes: bourgeois (the upper

Adorno Essay

1244 words - 5 pages free time is only maintained because free time is needed for recreation, to recreate labour power: this explains its importance in bourgeois society, and the way in which it is seen to express a relation of opposition to work. It also explains the 'inanity' of much leisure (page 164). This is part of a more general attempt to stamp out any real unruliness, and to organise and administer everything. This explains the power of the 'hobby ideology

Karl Marx

1204 words - 5 pages hated him for so many years - and take a really close look at who he actually was, and how he impacted the study of Sociology. I knew that he established the basis of communist ideology, and I have lived for twenty years through the atrocities committed by his followers, but I never really had the interest ( until now) to understand what influenced and drove him into envisioning and writing his proposals for change. Karl Marx was born in 1818 in

Marx's Exploitation View

1733 words - 7 pages , relates very much to Marx's ideology of exploitation.The issue of exploitation, as described in the book, would appear to accord with the beliefs of Marx and therefore could be affirmed by him. For instance, in Chap. 2, p.37, it is stated, "…over 50% of the workforce of 100 people at one factory were foreign. Of those more than one third were in the UK illegally. Of the local workforce, 10% were claiming benefits they were not entitled to. The

Industrialization in Europe

715 words - 3 pages , security, and ideology (Winks & Neuberger, Making of Modernity, pg 257 – 262). Examples would be British rule in India, and the African colonies. African colonies didn’t seem so bad but from what I learned, under Belgium and Portuguese rule was brutal. The rest were not as harsh in ruling as those two nations were. Imperialism brought to the surface many of the contradictions of modern European life and helped undermine bourgeois certainties

Karl Marx, A Summary Of His Life

5480 words - 22 pages views were not accepted by most of his colleagues, and Karl Marx responded in parts of Die Deutsche Ideologie (The German Ideology), but decided not to publish it. Nevertheless Stirner's book was the main reason Marx abandoned the Feuerbachian view and developed the basic concept of historical materialism.Georg Hegel had recently died in 1831, and during his lifetime was an extremely influential figure at Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität and

Fascism in the Twentieth Century

2367 words - 10 pages conditions to enable the rise of Nazism, Nazi ideology was derived from the intellectual and political underworld of pre-1914 Germany. Before 1914, this far-right ideology which was heavily focused on anti-Semitism, remained on the political fringe and had little influence on domestic policies. Hitler himself, for example, although later greatly influenced by the Austrian anti-Semitism of Karl Leuger (1844-1910), was a failed art student and

Oscar Wilde's Life And Works

6777 words - 28 pages written to Wilde: ?When you not on a pedestal, you are interesting to nobody?. I don?t think, that today any sane person will agree with it. Уайльд belonged to those bourgeois writers, whose paradoxical works reflected the disintegration of bourgeois ideology. That?s why the satirical talent of the writer did not have an opportunity to develop. However, despite of all discrepancy in Wilde?s works, his delicious

Income Tax Deductions

1758 words - 8 pages Britain. Nevertheless, the Declaration of Independence was a significant milestone in the American Revolution. The Declaration of Independence displayed two of the characteristics of revolution; ideology and leadership. Foundational to the Declaration were two philosophical themes- individual rights and the right of revolution- derived from the English philosopher John Locke. Locke advocated that an individual’s rights rose

Narrative Style Arundhati Roy

1627 words - 7 pages entomologist for the British government (pre-Independence) lead to his death; Baby Kochamma, who lusts for Father Mulligan and embraces Christianity; Kochu Maris, the superstitious house servant; Comrade Pillai, a local politician who in the name of Marxism actually brings more suffering than good to those disenfranchised like Velutha. As the narrator reveals the nuances of each character, the reader begins to see how ideology and social status

Modernity

1755 words - 8 pages economic forces, and the economic rationality of the bourgeois, are liberated from traditional constraints.” (Wood 1997) Hence, modernity had created some fantastic capitalistic opportunities, however, socially and politically the world was not ready for these changes. Even today’s modernised global society, multinationals and other capitalist figure-heads have blindly sought wealth at an ever increasing social cost, not only within the developed

Related Papers

Dandyism In The Picture Of Dorian Gray

4021 words - 17 pages changes ushered in a new age of bourgeois ideology which prompted some to declare the bourgeoisie to be the new aristocracy (Weiner 71). Accompanying the ascension of the bourgeois to the dominant social class were their values, which eventually became societal norms. The middle class value system could be considered in two categories. There were the private values, based on respectability and good character, such as religious piety, temperance

Propaganda Model Essay

745 words - 3 pages , puts the adherent immediately in a defensive position, which requires justification. In addition, if Communism is the ultimate evil, pragmatic politics suggest that accommodation of Fascism and other state terror can be justified if it serves the anti-communist cause.         In relating Herman and Chomsky's "Propaganda Model" and Karl Marx's claim in "German Ideology" that "the ruling ideas are nothing more than the ideal expression of

What Is Fascism? Essay

1598 words - 7 pages socially ostracized (or worse) and denied state benefits. They didn't necessarily believe in fascist ideology, and many opposed it, but the fascist state required them to participate in it. The major difference between fascism and socialism is that the former was all about preserving hierarchy and bourgeois society, while getting rid of industrial alienation through the creation of a totalitarian society. Mussolini thought that by giving up your

Literary Review Of Prior Studies

998 words - 4 pages between Cyril Fielding and Dr. Aziz is not restored. In this regard, Forster concludes the difference of colonial status in the public realm that is internalized by the Indian Muslim doctor renders impossible a satisfactory personal relationship with a British resident in imperial India. Later on, Forster adopted the idea of personal relationship as an ideology that should be defended. Thus, Forster's essay (1977:68) " What I Believe", points out