The Cognitive Benefits Of Learning By Tutoring

1552 words - 7 pages

The Cognitive Benefits of Learning by Tutoring


Abstract

A central question in educational theory is how students best encode material for long-term recall. We explored cognitive gains for students engaged in an actual tutoring task. Subjects (N=88) were randomly assigned to Learning conditions (Non-tutoring, Tutoring) and asked to read two passages followed by Post-test 1. Non-tutoring subjects were asked to review the passages while Tutoring subjects were asked to tutor the material to another student and then all took Post-test 2. We predicted that (i) Tutoring subjects would score higher than Non-Tutoring subjects on both general and specific material ...view middle of the document...

Extensive literature suggests that tutoring has many social and cognitive benefits for both tutors and tutees (Dangwal and Kapoor, 2009; Dineen et al., 1977; B.Goldschmid and M.Goldschmid, 1976). Some of these benefits are in the form of positive social attitudes toward peers, better understanding of subject material and overall learning gains. According to Katona (1940), the act of instructing helps the tutor build a more organized cognitive structure and facilitates an understanding of the relationship between facts (as cited in Bargh & Schul, 1980). Further, Roscoe and Chi (535) defined these positive outcomes as the "Tutor Learning effect" which refers to learning gains experienced by tutors as a result of tutoring.
Cohen, C. Kulik and J. Kulik (1982), in their meta-analyses of sixty-five independent school-tutoring programs, found that both tutors and tutees experienced academic and social gains through peer-tutor programs. Saunders (1992) found that peer learning, the process where students learn from and with each other in both formal and informal ways, provided a unique learning experience that was qualitatively different from the usual teacher-student interactions and offered mutual benefits for both the tutor and the tutee (as cited in Anderson & Boud, 1996). Specifically, majority of the senior students involved in proctoring or mentoring junior students experienced positive social attitudes towards them.
A study by Benware and Deci (1984) explored the role of intrinsic motivation and conceptual learning by comparing students with Active and Passive orientations while learning new material. They found that subjects who learned material in order to teach (Active orientation) another student expressed more intrinsic motivation, conceptual understanding and active engagement in the learning environment than subjects who learned the material in order to be tested on it (Passive orientation).
Bargh and Schul (1980) explored the benefits of peer-tutoring programs for tutors and the resulting cognitive gains in the form of Content-specific gains and Generalized-knowledge gains. They defined Content-specific gains as positive outcomes that resulted from an increase in the organization and/or elaboration of the specific subject matter that was taught thus causing the representation of that subject matter to become stronger and more accessible in memory. They further defined Generalized-knowledge gains as gains that resulted from the development of a more general knowledge structure that also facilitated the learning of related material. In their first experiment, Bargh and Schul (1980) explored Content-specific gains by having subjects in the experimental group learn verbal material in order to "prepare to teach someone" (they did not actually teach) while the control group simply learned material to be tested on it. The second experiment explored Generalized- knowledge gains by including problem-solving and verbal tasks in the...

Other Essays Like The Cognitive Benefits Of Learning By Tutoring

The Benefits of Recycle Essay

2297 words - 10 pages The Benefits of Trash Recycling A University Student of Airlangga University ABSTRACT This article analyzes the other side of the existence of trash. Nowdays, there are a lot of trash and its kinds around us. Some people think that the trash is only something unuseful, but behind all, the trash can be changed becomes something new and useful by recycling. Recycling is a process on change the trash becomes something new that is more

Benefits of the Eu Essay

1047 words - 5 pages my academic subject with presenting a short résumé of the history of the European Union followed by an explanation of its main benefits and why they are so important. In order to support my arguments I shall use reliable sources and materials, whose authors are regarded as trustworthy on the European Union issues. In my conclusion I’ll summarise the main advantages of the European union and I’ll explain why every one of us should be

The Benefits of Networking

330 words - 2 pages The Benefits of NetworkingToday, many up-and-coming companies are abandoning the old "stand alone" computer systems for high-end networking environments, and for good reason. In the work force, time is money. The length and complexity of any specific task within an organization can degrade the overall performance, organizational quality, and efficiency of the company as a whole. Additionally, problems in one area can lead to "kinks" in the chain

Standing Up For The Power Of Learning, By Jay Mathews

1252 words - 6 pages The essay, “Standing Up for the Power of Learning,” by Jay Mathews explained how one of many students was accused of academic dishonesty. During the regular school session of the year 2001, three fourths of 187 students at Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT) were found guilty of cheating. This was because they collaborated on an assignment in a computer science (CS) course with friends. By communicating with others about the project, the

Benefits by the Reduction in Terrorist Activities

3248 words - 13 pages IRAQ: Benefits by the reduction in terrorist activities(4-5 para main)  It was clear that the United States did not have a plan in place for handling the situation in Iraq after the main military operations were finished. This was a strategic mistake, accompanied later by numerous tactical mistakes. These arose from a misunderstanding of the situation in Iraq and of the principles governing Islamic society. As the result of these mistakes

The Immediate Benefits Realized by Humanity in the Pursuit of Space Exploration

1868 words - 8 pages The Immediate Benefits Realized by Humanity in the Pursuit of Space Exploration Bradley D. Fluharty COM/156 September 30th, 2012 Dr. Nguyen Thinh The Immediate Benefits Realized by Humanity in the Pursuit of Space Exploration Research has indicated that technological developments associated with the exploration of space are far more reaching than previously imagined. Developments and innovations in the fields of health and medicine

The Benefits of Regular Exercise

548 words - 3 pages attention. Such a program, if it consists of at least thirty minutes three times a week and if a person's physician approves it, provides numerous benefits. Regular exercise releases tension, improves appearance, and increases stamina The first of these benefits, the release of tension, is immediate . Tension builds in the body because of an overaccumulation of adrenaline produced by stress, anxiety, or fear. Doctors agree that

Canada - The Benefits Of Immigration

611 words - 3 pages Benefits of ImmigrationImmigration issues are discussed from very different viewpoints. Some people argue that immigration has nothing but huge costs. Expenses like ESL (English as a Second Language) costs, the increase in crime associated with foreign criminality and the insecurity after September 11 terrorist attack have made people to question if immigration should increase. In my opionion, immigration has a lot of benefits and is an asset to

The Many Benefits Of Water

1481 words - 6 pages social gatherings. Because alcohol is a diuretic, drinking excessive amounts will cause your urine output to increase, stealing precious water from your body. Just by following those three simple tips, you will be getting a good amount of water and stay properly hydrated. As you can see there are many reasons to drink water and many benefits from drinking the proper amount of water. Drinking the adequate amount of water is one of the easiest and

How Might Cliff Make Use of Principles of Cognitive Learning Theory to Improve His Staff's Productivity Even Further?

774 words - 4 pages sound of a bell ringing, and moments later, they were given the food. It was at that time when Pavlov's discovery took place. By taking the unconditioned stimulus, which was an alarm sound, and a neural stimulus, which was something the dogs had been born with, and joining the two stimuli in a close range of one another, we learned that this phenomenon was called classical conditioning. We learned from classical conditioning that humans

The Concept of Distance Learning

922 words - 4 pages . Students are able to overcome the distance cause by the inability to travel, to uproot from a home, low finances, and the fear of losing a job. Distance learning is especially appealing to adult student, “most of who[m] are engaged in the world of work”, as they are able to keep their jobs and stay with their families wherever the world they may be, and attend school at the same time (Bjorner 21). The cost of traveling, commuting, and changing

Related Papers

What Are The Benefits Of Learning Psychology?

1913 words - 8 pages stored information a put it to action by completing many tasks esp. cognitive. Finally, people live because of their goals. Everyone has its ‘mission’ to be accomplished. It cannot be overlooked that it is not easy to achieve happiness without overcoming many problems. Psychology will not solve our problems. Instead it helps us to realize that there are certain types of problems and if we categorise them we have better chance for success. To sum up, if people think that ‘science of behaviour or mind’ is a key for good life, they will never become good psychologists or the will not regard psychology as logical science.

The Benefits Of Napping Essay

1303 words - 6 pages in length and are good for your body. Also, naps can make people feel energized and rested. “Napping for 20 minutes can help refresh the mind, improve overall alertness, boost mood and increase productivity,” (www.wikipedia.org).They can also make people want to go out and do more things like shopping, biking, hiking, etc. When a person feels good physically, they’ll function better mentally. According to a study by a team of researchers from

The Benefits Of Reading Essay

589 words - 3 pages The Benefits of ReadingReading is the best thing we can do for ourselves. Not only does reading enrich our lives, it can also enrich the world around us. It has been stated that, "The more you read, the better you get at it; the better you get at it, the more you like it; the more you like it, the more you do it. And the more you read, the more you know; the more you know, the smarter you grow".The benefits of reading last a lifetime. Reading

The Benefits Of Cloning Essay

356 words - 2 pages . Another benefit of cloning is called therapeutic cloning, which enables the creation of steam cells. These cells are multifunction that can be transplanted to act like other cells, such as brain cells, spinal cord, liver cells, etc., since it is a clone the steam cell will be identical to the original cells or organs. Subsequently, the long list of patients waiting for organ transfer would reduce tremendously. It would also make the society become healthy. In conclusion, the benefits of cloning are numerous, accurate measures to check fraudulent use of cloning should be put in place by the government, and the benefits of cloning would be maximized.