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The History Of Freud And Psychoanalysis

2988 words - 12 pages

"Psychoanalysis is (a) the method developed by Sigmund Freud and extended by his followers for treating mental disorders. (b) The theory of personality, which grew out of experiences with the psychoanalytic method of treatment. The theory emphasizes the role of unconscious processes in personality development and in motivation." (Atkinson, 1953). Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung and Alfred Adler all influenced the school of psychoanalysis; however, before this there were many precursors to psychoanalysis such as Franz Anton Mesmer, Philippe Pinel and Jean-Martin Charcot.Franz Anton Mesmer was born on May 23, 1734 in Iznang, Germany. Mesmer received an MD from the University of Vienna in 1766. His ...view middle of the document...

Philippe Pinel was born on April 20, 1745, in Saint Andre, France. His father was a surgeon and his mother was from a long line of physicians. He received his MD from a university in Toulouse in 1773. In 1774, Pinel moved to Montpellier where he educated wealthy students in anatomy and mathematics. He was a member of the Montpellier Société Royale des Sciences, where he presented two papers on the use of mathematics in anatomical studies.In 1778 Pinel moved to Paris, here he encountered many scientists and was introduced to many radical new ideas, such as that of John Locke and the French sensationalists. Though he could not practise medicine in Paris, he became a well-known and respected medical writer. In 1785, a friend of Pinel developed a mental illness resulting in his death. Pinel became dedicated to the study of mental illness and in 1792, he became the head of the Paris asylum at Bicêtre, here he became famous. Before Pinel became head on the asylum, the patients were held in chains, treated atrociously and put on public display daily. In 1793, Pinel introduced a new system of human care, to which he referred to as moral therapy. The patients were given clean, comfortable accommodation and were given simple but productive work to do.In 1795, Pinel was selected the head physician at the world famous hospital, Salpêtrière. He provided the same treatment to the mentally ill patients. He was also made professor of medical pathology in Paris. Later, in 1801, Pinel presented the first textbook on moral therapy.Pinel is known for dismissing the notion that mentally ill patients are possessed by demons and prohibited treatments such as bleeding from his hospital. He was physician to Napoleon and was made knight of the Legion d'Honneur in 1804. Philippe Pinel died in Paris on October 25, 1826.Jean-Martin Charcot was born in Paris on November 29, 1825. He received his MD at the University of Paris in 1853. He became a professor and in 1862, he began to work at the Salpêtrière Hospital. In 1882, he opened a neurological clinic at the Salpêtrière Hospital. The hospital and Charcot himself became known throughout Europe and students came from all over to study his new science, even Freud himself came.Charcot is well known in the medical field for his studies of the neurology of motor disorders, aneurysms, localisation of brain functions and is considered the father of modern neurology. He is also the first doctor to diagnose a patient with Multiple Sclerosis. He died in Morvan, in France on August 16, 1893.These scientists are recognised as the precursors to psychoanalysis. Their contributed paved the way for psychoanalysis.Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856, in Freiberg, Moravia, which was at that time Austria-Hungary (now Czech Republic). He came from a middle class Jewish family and was the eldest child of his father's second wife. His father was a wool-merchant; soon after Freud's...

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