The History Of Hate Crimes Of African Americans And How It Became A Controverial Issue Today

2096 words - 9 pages

African Americans have suffered and struggled throughout their history due to a variation of factors. One main factor involved in causing this is due to the racial prejudice and hate crimes perpetrated against them. In the United States, there have been movements and laws to protect these individuals from such acts of hatred; but injustice continues today as it has in past years. Although, hate crimes are against the law, individuals continue to commit hate crimes against African Americans. Hate crimes are "crimes that manifest evidence of prejudice based on race, religion, sexual orientation, or ethnicity, including where appropriate the crimes of murder, non-negligent manslaughter, ...view middle of the document...

Regardless of the slave's origin, the slave was usually the object of contempt, neglect, abuse, or brutality. The greater the difference of the ethnic, racial, or cultural background between the slaves and their owner, the worse the slave's conditions were and the fewer rights they had. In America, where the owners were mostly white and the slaves were black, the degree of isolation and contempt for the slaves was extremely high (Matsuda, 1993 p. 2).When the southern states of America seceded from the Union and the Civil War began, it was no longer necessary for the north to tolerate slavery in the south. On January 1, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation after stating to the Confederate states to return to their allegiance to the Union. Otherwise, their slaves were to be declared free men. The proclamation was issue after the Confederate states did not return. A deathblow to slavery in the United States was dealt. Then in 1865, the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment further sealed this event. The Emancipation Proclamation was the first law to aid Africa-origin individuals in the abolishment of slavery and human rights. The proclamation also brought forth the ability of the Union to recruit black soldiers; thousands enlisted during the remainder of the war. After the Civil War and the abolishment of slavery, other struggles for African-origin people took form, violation of civil right along with segregation and hate groups.During 1865-1866, black codes were enacted which restricted the rights of African-origin individuals. The Black Codes of 1865 turned out to be a unique way for white southerners to attempt to maintain the way of life they had known prior to the Civil War. While freedom had been won, ex-slaves were restricted and opportunities were limited. Laws were different in each state but most embodied the same kinds of restrictions. Codes compelled freedmen to work. In many states, if unemployed, African Americans faced the potential of being arrested and charged with vagrancy. Many of those that did work had their day regulated. Codes dictated their hours of labor, duties, and the behavior assigned to them as agricultural workers (Matsuda, 1993 p. 7). During the years of 1866 to 1877, Congress implemented Reconstruction, which was aimed at reorganizing the southern states after the Civil War, providing the means for readmitting them into the Union, abolished Black Codes, and defining the resources by which whites and blacks could live together in a non slave society. However, the South saw Reconstruction as a humiliating imposition and did not welcome it. During this time period of Reconstruction, white dominance groups were establishing in the South in the efforts to remove African Americans from white society. At this time, one of America's oldest and most feared groups was created, the Ku Klux Klan.When the southern people had suffered greatly from the effects of the Civil War, people wanted to...

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