The History of Terrorism
This comprehensive description for the history of terrorism analysis provides insight into the French and Russian revolutions expanding the terrorism knowledge to the Irish revolutionaries for political changes. The change of faces in terrorism activities shows as the left wing extremists slowly faded away with the collapse of the communism. The modern right wing extremist have an old history of using religious aspects as an excuse for killing innocent people to gain the political advantages. The future of terrorism takes a newer turn with the introduction for the weapons of mass destruction causing deaths of millions of innocents for the terrorist's statement, and ...view middle of the document...
The terrorism phenomenon fluctuates through influences of history, political power, or repression, mass media, and crime depending on the situation. The tactical definition describes terrorism as a fighting style because the violence created for high impact situations, for example, modes of public transportation. The basic forms create the most alarm includes bombing, arson, hijacking, assault, kidnapping, and attacking vulnerable targets. The difference between terrorism and crime is most criminal activity are crimes of opportunity and the terrorist determined to create the most impact plans every aspect. Most terrorists use force multipliers, including technology, transnational support, media, and religious fanaticism to build up the fear factor (Carberry, 1999).
French, Russian, and Irish Revolutionary Influences
The first use of the term, terrorism began with the French Revolution's, "reign of terror" when the changing regime decided to use terror to control the citizens (White, 2006). The underlying problems created opportunities for the terrorists to take advantage and use religious conviction for changing political power. According to White (2006), "Russian revolutionaries used guerilla tactics of bombs, bombing, arson, hijacking, assault, kidnapping, and attacking vulnerable targets causing terror and mayhem throughout the countryside" ( p. 25). The hit, and run tactics of the guerilla warfare caused gaps in the tsar's defenses bringing down the government and changing the politics. An Irish political professor, Michael Collins studied the Russian revolutionaries' tactics creating the Irish Revolutionary Army to force the English to leave Ireland. He studied the unique guerilla warfare consisting bomb making, and effective ambushes using the advantage of the terrain along with art of concealment. Under his leadership, England granted Ireland independence showing the changing face of terrorism used to effect political change from oppression (White, 2006).
According to Kegley, (2003) "Russian and Irish guerilla tactics influenced domestic and foreign terrorism for every country in the western hemisphere" (p. 14-19). The United States, Mexico, South, and Central America created volatile groups with dangerous agendas, for example, the Ku Klux Klan, a white supremacy group. This group raised hatred, and terror for minorities using left-wing communist theology to promote a pure white world. The hate crimes judgments perpetuated against everyone not the same race, sexual orientation, age, or gender as the offender. These crimes against a person or persons consist of intimidation, bullying, harassment, verbal, or physical abuse, murder, rape, along with mental and physical assaults. Mexico. South and Central America shows widespread corruption among government officials to the drug cartels with innocent people caught in the middle. Every country produces both the domestic and foreign terrorist seeking to right the...