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The History Of The Internet Essay

1409 words - 6 pages

When one thinks of the internet, one may think of America Online,

Yahoo!, or of Sandra Bullock being caught up in an espionage

conspiracy. For me, it is a means of communication. A way to talk to

some of my friends who live off in distant places such as Los Angeles,

New Jersey, and the Philippines. The U.S. Defense Department originally

had this intent in mind when they connected a computer network with

various other radio and satellite networks.[1 Krol] They wanted a means

of communicating within the U.S. military that could withstand partial

outages, such a bomb attacks, and still function.[2 Krol]

In this paper I will cover the internet’s experimental ...view middle of the document...

[6 ibid] They also make the

rules on how to keep track of each 32-bit address number used by each

computer on the internet. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is

the governing body who takes care of operational and near-tearm

technical problems of the internet.[7 ibid]

Along with all conveniences, there is a price to pay. Though

information could be obtained from the internet for free, everyone has

to pay for their own access to it. Just like NSF pays for NSFNET and

NASA pays for NASA Science Internet, individuals pay their Internet

Service Provider and their telephone company for access to the

internet.[8 ibid] As Ed Krol in said in The Whole Internet User’s

Guide, ”everyone pays for their part.”

The internet, just like the light bulb and the airplane, started out as

an idea. In August 1962, a researcher at MIT by the name of J.C.R.

Licklider wrote a series of memos that outlined a “Galactic Network” of

interconnected computers whereby everyone could quickly access

information and programs from any site.[9 Leiner] Another researcher at

MIT, Leonard Kleinrock, published a paper in July 1961 that would make

communication on the internet more feasible.[10 ibid] Kleinrock’s

paper on the packet switching theory convinced MIT researcher Lawrence

Roberts to set up an experiment that involved connecting a TX-2 computer

at MIT to a AN/FSQ-32 computer at System Development Corp. at Santa

Monica, California.[11 ibid] This experiment resulted in the first

computer network ever built.[12 ibid] In 1966 Roberts took his computer

network expertise to the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

(DARPA) and quickly put together a plan for an “ARPANET”. During the

implementation of this plan, Leonard Kleinrock’s theory of packet

switching was put into practice by the development of key components

called Interface Message Processors (IMPs).[13 ibid]

The impact of this development led to the assembly of the ARPANET. The

first site chosen to implement the ARPANET is the Network Measurement

Center at UCLA.[14 ibid] This was made possible by the installation of

the first IMP and the first host computer at UCLA in September 1969.[15

ibid] Then later, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of

California Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah were added to the

beginning of the ARPANET.[16 Zakon] In October 1972, the ARPANET was

successfully demonstrated at the International Computer Communication

Conference (ICCC).[17 Leiner] It is this ARPANET that grew into what we

know as the Internet.[18 Leiner]

Two different developments came from the ARPANET: the Transmission

Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and electronic mail.[19

ibid] These developments laid the groundwork for the commercialization

of internet technology. In the early 1980’s, commercial developers of

internet technology were...

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