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The Impact Of Some Selected Factors In Cooperative Learning On The Improvement Of Academic Performance And Social Behavior Among Grade Five Students At A Primary School – The Theory

981 words - 4 pages

Johnson and Johnson (1989) are the developers of the cooperative learning method. There has been a long history of research on cooperative, competitive, and individualistic efforts. Since the first research study in 1898, nearly 600 experimental studies and over 100 co-relational studies have been conducted. The multiple outcomes studied can be classified into three major categories: achievement/productivity, positive relationships, and psychological health. Research done by Cooper (1990) supports what has been done by developers of the method under study. That research indicates that cooperation, compared with competitive and individualistic efforts, typically result in (a) higher ...view middle of the document...

They claim that the average student in a cooperative learning group solved more problems correctly than 71 percent of the students who worked competitively.Despite the fact that cooperative learning is proven as discussed in the review of literature to be an effective strategy in the teaching learning process, Guardian (1991), a leading strategy researcher, believes that cooperative learning is not designed for all types of students. He states that extroverts often become dillusioned and end up doing most of the work. He believes that extroverts usually enjoy that kind of teaching activity more than introverts as they may view cooperative learning as chaotic partly because of the noise level that often exists during such activities.However, Charles and Slavin (1995) dismiss Guardian's views by stating that the problem he mentions will arise when students are not grouped according to varying abilities. They feel that mixing students heterogeneously, with the teacher as a guide and monitor, will reduce students wandering off tasks, relying on others to do the work and thus reduce noise level. Charles (1995) reiterates that students usually like cooperative activity and engage in it eagerly. For that reason, he opines that cooperative learning could be a welcome, more effective alternative to seat work. Stephens et al., (1987) have long enjoined that instead of completing worksheets, which may not even be related to the lesson being taught, students can work effectively in groups to complete related tasks.It is the researcher's opinion that cooperative learning also enhances social skills. This has been underscored in the literature that has been reviewed. Simpson, Smith, and Myles (1997) conclude that teaching the importance of using appropriate social skills belongs in every classroom, regardless of grade or subject. Many children with behaviour needs benefit from the ongoing teaching of social skills. In the inclusion model, children with special needs will benefit from the social skills learned by the regular...

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