This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Influence Of Climate And Soil Characteristics On Fruit Quality Of Wine Grapes In New Zealand

3796 words - 16 pages

The Influence of Climate and Soil Characteristics on Fruit Quality of Wine Grapes in New Zealand
by So Pyay Thar

Wine is one of the eldest beverages consumed throughout the world today (McGovern,, 2000). It has been widely consumed for many years for its attractive aroma, exceptional taste as well as for social, recreational, ceremonial, medicinal and dietary purposes, etc. (Estreicher, 2004). Producing high quality grape wine has always been a challenge for many wine industries around the world. However, most of the winemakers agree that high-quality wine begins with the land and the natural environment of the region in which the grapes are grown (Goldammer, 2013).
...view middle of the document...

Figure 1. Conceptual model to show how soil, climate and vineyard management can affect the fruit composition directly or indirectly through canopy microclimate and vine physiology (Source: Smart et al, 1985; Weldon, 2003; Sluys, 2006)
The rest of the review is organized as follows; the next section describes the influence of climate on grape wine quality followed by detailed impacts of temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, wind and frost. Next the influence of soil characteristic including soil structure, soil texture, soil type, soil depth and soil pH are described and concluded with the discussion of the New Zealand wine industry.
Influence of Climate on Grape Wine Quality
The effect of climate on Agriculture is especially evident with the cultivation of grapevines (Jones, 2005). Likewise, Jackson (2001) stated that the grape vine is “one of the most responsive cultivated plants to the ever changing surrounding climatic conditions”.
The climate is affected by the altitude and latitude which in turns affect the ripening of the fruit. Between the latitudes of 30° to 50°, having a mean annual temperatures of 10°C and 20°C, grape cultivation occurs mainly (Jackson, 2001). Hence, most of the worlds’ wine producing regions are located between 30° and 50° latitude in both north and southern hemispheres (Neirynck, 2009). Berry (1990) stated that outside these latitudes there is either the problem of excessive heat or severe cold. The intensive heat can prevent the vine from a dormant resting stage and lead to burning of grapes and leaves reducing in quality by eliminating the aroma and color in the wine. On the other hand, severe chills can prevent the grapes from taking up sufficient sugar for full ripeness causing tart and over acidic wines. Therefore, it can be stated as a general rule that grapes can be grown for wine-making anywhere between 30° and 50°. According to Thropy (1971), New Zealand lies between 34° and 47°. The Bordeaux district, the home of the famous French clarets, lies approximately in the same latitude as Timaru (44°) in New Zealand. So, in general, New Zealand lies in the temperate zone.
There are many individual weather and climate factors that have a profound impact on the fruit maturity, grape growth and wine quality such as temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, wind, and frost (Zoecklein, 2010). As several classifications of climate exist for vine compatibility, wine growers have been concerned about climate for a longtime. There have also been various studies in which the weather and climate influence the quality of grapes to produce high quality wines (Fitzharris et. al, 1996; Ubalde, 2010; Lorenzo, et. al., 2013). Due to these major influences, grapes possess the ability to ripen to optimum levels of sugar, acid and flavor maximizing the quality of wine grapes (Jones, 2005). Therefore, climate influences the rate of change in the grape during development and its composition at maturity.
The ideal...

Other Essays Like The Influence of Climate and Soil Characteristics on Fruit Quality of Wine Grapes in New Zealand

The Grapes of Wrath Essay

2952 words - 12 pages .The Grapes of Wrath began with a man walking in the street alone, with birds “twittering” in Oklahoma. The man just so happened to be Tom Joad. Tom Joad was just released from jail on parole. He caught a ride on a random man’s truck so he could go visit his family. When he arrived at a certain spot, he got out of the truck and told the man what he did to get in jail. The man looked scared and he drove off. While walking down the road, Tom saw

"The Grapes Of Wrath" Essay

914 words - 4 pages has been "tractored" off the land. Most families, he says, including his own, have headed to California to look for work. The next morning, Tom and Jim set off for Tom's Uncle John's, where Muley assures them they will find the Joad clan. When arriving, Tom finds Ma and Pa Joad packing up the family's few possessions. Having seen handbills advertising fruit-picking jobs in California, they imagine the trip to California as their only hope of

The Effect of Wood Ashes in Hastening the Fruit Ripening of Musa Acuminata (Banana) and Mangifera Indica (Mango)

3027 words - 13 pages characteristics associated with ripening. The study is for the people to know the scientific explanation behind the superstitious belief of using ashes in ripening fruits and for the household, who uses wood in cooking, to find a significant use of the ash remains. Scope and Limitation This paper will focus on determining if applying wood ash has an effect in the rate of maturation in the fruit and if applying wood ash is a

New Zealand & Impact On Fishing

1436 words - 6 pages pollution is a problem in the United States, it is a problem in New Zealand as well. From objects that aren’t biodegradable to toxic chemicals, a lot needs to be cleaned up, not just them, but the pollution causing habits as well. Even ozone depletion and global warming could have an effect on the aquatic environment. New Zealand has done it share to restore populations of fish, by a means of “fish farming”. In fact, this method is so successful

The Selfish And The Selfless In The Great Gatsby And The Grapes Of Wrath

1128 words - 5 pages Steinbeck, the individuals often commit acts of true altruism. Instead of always being on the lookout for themselves, they often make sacrifices for others. The Great Gatsby’s selfish, egocentric acts contrast with the altruistic, selfless acts in The Grapes of Wrath through demonstrations of self sacrifice, greed, and the ability to persevere and help others in the direst of situations. After a traumatic, horrible event takes place, there are

The Effects of Quality Management on Domestic and Global Competition

994 words - 4 pages The Effects of Quality Management on Domestic and Global Competition Introduction Today the concept of quality management has emerged as a significant business practice companies want to adopt. The reason is simple: to become more effective and customer oriented. By implementing quality management, enterprises have become able to ensure quality in their products and services (The Importance of Quality Management, 2010). There are a number of

Asian Influx In New Zealand

688 words - 3 pages In the last few years, the Asian population has grown across New Zealand since the first Chinese farmers and miners set foot on New Zealand shores. Just take a walk down any main road in Browns Bay and some of the thousands of Asians staying in New Zealand, can be seen. The first question that comes up in my mind is did it happen over a long period or over the past four years? Another question I fear to ask is why then are New Zealanders so

Childhood Obesity in New Zealand

4889 words - 20 pages Add more detail and elaborate more on each point instead of moving on to the next point so quickly. Childhood Obesity in New Zealand Activity Instructions Task: The Critical Examination Part A Critically examine the existence of childhood obesity and consider the extent that it is, as often reported by the media, simply a matter of nutrition and physical inactivity? Part B Examine in detail how issues around children’s health

Doing Business in New Zealand

2599 words - 11 pages clean lines of their architecture and design. Denmark also caters to the music lovers as well. Every year, musicians and other lovers of music can partake in more than 100 rock, folk and jazz festivals and a lively international concert scene even beyond the capital. Boasting a highly developed and educated workforce, the Danes can be depended on for quality work performance. They are team players and are very flexible to work with. At 80

Driving 101 in New Zealand

1411 words - 6 pages large hills away from his work on the flat for a spluttering scooter to manage. In the end, a chance conversation with a friend led me buying a cheap and tidy 1990 Toyota Corolla last December. You couldnt swipe the smile off Cams face on Christmas Day, nor his bottom from the drivers seat as he sat there for a couple of hours fantasizing about his future adventures in the car he nicknamed Kelsey. The previous owner left the car quite dirty

The Grapes of Wrath - Paper

1114 words - 5 pages to break. All over the U.S. a sense of community was breaking out in affect of The Depression. Dispite race, religion, gender and other problems the people were dealing with, they were uniting to survive. The oakies’ family had changed in the aspect of gender rules, for instance the female figure, once powerless, had now taken control and was in charge of the decision making. The New Deal also had an effect in Steibeck’s, The Grapes of

Related Papers

Colonization Of New Zealand Essay

814 words - 4 pages Brooke Bragenzer Period 2 New Zealand Colonization The history of New Zealand dates back at least 700 years to when it was discovered and settled by Polynesians, who developed a distinct Māori culture centered on kinship links and land. The first European explorer to sight New Zealand was Abel Janszoon Tasman on 13 December 1642. Captain James Cook, who reached New Zealand in October 1769 on the first of his three voyages, was the first

Gold Rush Of Australia And New Zealand

1803 words - 8 pages Compare and contrast the major impacts of the gold rushes on Australian and New Zealand society and environment Both the gold rushes in Australia and New Zealand in the 1850-60s resulted in the dramatic change in society and the environment of both countries. There are many comparisons between the impacts on Australian and New Zealand society and environment. However, there are a few contrasting factors, which largely contribute to the

Financial Analysis Of Warehouse In New Zealand

1514 words - 7 pages Financial analysis of The Warehouse As one of New Zealand’s largest retailers, known and loved by Kiwis for its wide range of products from clothing, entertainment, technology and music to sporting, gardening, grocery and many others, The Warehouse has been providing Kiwis with "a bargain" since 1982. With 88 stores throughout New Zealand they remain a New Zealand owned and operated company employing nearly 9,000 team members from Kaitaia in

Essay On The Grapes Of Wrarh

555 words - 3 pages between Casey and Christ is that Casey had also drifted out to the forests in order to "soul-search" and discover the answers to hidden questions. In this particular situation, Casey states the comparison of Christ's and his actions while giving grace at the Joad's breakfast table, "...I been in the hills, thinking', almost you might say like Jesus went into the wilderness to think His way out of a mess of troubles". Casey additional goes on