The Life And Work Of Mary Crawford: A Feminist Psychologist

1572 words - 7 pages

Major Scientific Contribution
Sex and Gender
Mary Crawford and Rhoda Unger, together, have pioneered research and discussions in the concept of sex and gender. In their article, Commentary: Sex and Gender – The Troubled Relationship Between Terms and Concepts, Crawford argues that new guidelines and definitions should be established for correctly and responsibly using the words gender and sex (Unger 1993). Crawford reasons that these concepts are most important when attempting to explain causality (Unger 1993). Interestingly, Crawford reports that some cultures which grammatically use a third neuter term, rather than all words being either masculine or feminine, can vastly change the ideas ...view middle of the document...

She says that even though research supports that notion of gender being socially constructed, it does not deal with the interaction of socially constructed roles that are associated with each male or female identities or the effects behavior can have on biology (Unger 1993).
Gender, Sex, and HIV
In this widely cited article, Gender attitudes, sexual power, HIV risk: A model for understanding HIV risk behavior in South African men, Crawford examines the relationship between beliefs of gender roles and risk for contracting HIV(Kaufman 2008). Africa has a major problem with HIV/AIDS. Crawford reports that as of 2006, 18.8% of adults in South Africa are infected with the virus (Kaufman 2008). Even though this study focused on men, the research was important to women because in some parts of Africa, the number of women infected with HIV is twice that of men (Kaufman 2008). Sexual assault is also more prevalent of a health issue in Africa than in many other parts of the world due to the incidence of HIV, so Crawford found it important to study the links between attitudes and HIV (Kaufman 2008).
Cultural gender roles are strictly adhered to in Africa, with men being viewed as the teaching role and women being passive and submissive (Kaufman 2008). An African man’s masculinity seems to be defined by his power to make choices for himself and his partner and to be the dominant role (Kaufman 2008). Crawford reports that women are at highest risk for HIV infection when they are more submissive and lack power to determine when and who they have relations with (Kaufman 2008). Crawford stresses the importance of placing safer sex practices in the hands of men as well as women Because the culture is so male dominated, she urges that steps be taken to study how they could affect men’s attitudes toward women, or women’s level of power in their sexual relationships, which could have a larger impact than current prevention programs (Kaufman 2008).
The results of this study were interesting, in that they did not find every expected correlation to be significant (Kaufman 2008). One correlation was surprisingly in the opposite direction; with men who reported to believe masculine dominance were found to participate in less risky sexual behaviors (Kaufman 2008). However, men who were more hostile to women did report to engage in more high risk sexual behaviors (Kaufman 2008). Men were also found to have more control in relationships as their hostility towards women increased (Kaufman 2008). Crawford also reported that men claimed to feel disempowered and that this was a threat to their decision-making dominance in the family but was much related to men who were no longer the primary bread winner of their families (Kaufman 2008). In summary, they found that when men viewed themselves at greater risk of sexually transmitted infections or of losing their beliefs of masculinity, they were more likely to use safer sex practices (Kaufman 2008).
Sex Trafficking in Nepal

Other Essays Like The Life And Work Of Mary Crawford: A Feminist Psychologist

William Blake, Brief Overview of Life and Work

570 words - 3 pages William Blake was born in 1757 in Soho district of London. His father James was a hosier. William attended school just enough to learn how to read and write and was further educated by his mother Catherine. The Blakes were Dissenters. William was baptised at St James's Church in London. The Bible was an early and profound influence on Blake, and would remain so throughout his life. He was enrolled in drawing classes. At this time, he made

The Importance of Work-Life Balance in the Effective Management of People at Work

1442 words - 6 pages The importance of work-life balance in the effective management of people at work in contemporary organizations is now an issues faced by organizations to facilitate the demands of workers due to outside working commitments. WLB is a concept that supports the efforts of employees to split their time and energy between work and the other important aspects of their lives (Heatherflied,) Understanding the balance between work and life this topic

Christopher Marlow's Life And Work

1136 words - 5 pages the rest of his life. Evidently, in his brief, tragic, and passionate life, Marlowe was the kind of man who could not help making enemies. He seems to have lived, as he thought, dangerously. The history of Marlowe's remaining six years of his life traces a series of violent clashes with the law. By 1589 he was living in Norton Folgate, near the theaters, close to Thomas Watson, the poet. In September, Marlowe and William Bradley fell to fighting

A Critical Evaluation of: ‘the Crossover of Burnout and Work Engagement Among Young Couples’

1663 words - 7 pages There are a variety of methodological, epistemological and ontological issues highlighted within the article: ‘The crossover of burnout and work engagement among young couples’ (the Study) by Bakker, Demerouti and Schaufeli, published in 2005 within the Human Relations Journal, which will be summarised in the following paper. In order to critically evaluate, a number of questions concerning academic discipline, contribution to knowledge

GCSE Coursework:Frankenstein:How Does Mary Shelley Manipulate Your Responce To The Characters Of Frankenstein And His Monster As The Story Develops?:For This I Got A Grade A/A*

1768 words - 8 pages FrankensteinHow does Mary Shelley manipulate you response to the characters of Frankenstein and his monster as the story develops?The opening paragraph sets the scene for the story. It does this from the start when it begins with. 'a dreary night in November.' This creates a sense of winter with connotations of coldness, darkness and a time of death. It's also a classic setting for a horror novel. The word 'dreary' I think is an effective

The Difference Between the Feminist Movement of 1960 and That of Today

1207 words - 5 pages movement of this period fought to achieve women's civil liberty rights, eradication of gender discrimination at workplace and in education centers, eliminating discrimination in wages, sexual revolution, reproductive rights and subsequently, amending the laws pertaining to cater for women’s need. According to the book the 1960 feminist movement was a major advocate in pushing congress to pass the Equal Pay Act in 1963, which made it illegal to pay a

The Role and Life of a Mental Health Counselor

1766 words - 8 pages asks the client about their day so far and if any action has been taken towards their goals. The counselor is able to provide the client with a treatment plan that they can work on to help them achieve some of their goals. Once the client is finish the counselor allows the client and others to take part in a group counseling session. The clients are able to see that they are not the only ones dealing with different issues in their life and

The Little Prince — a fairy tale of love and life

2130 words - 9 pages The Little Prince ——a fairy tale of love and life As many other fairy tales,the outline of The Little Prince is not very complex.The narrator of the story is a pilot whose plane had something wrong and had to land in the Sahara, then the pilot made the acquaintance of the little prince who came from another planet.The little prince had left his tiny planet as there was something wrong with the relationship

Managing the Work of Individuals and Teams

1064 words - 5 pages Managing the work of Individuals and teams Review the performance of teams – Assignment 4 Task 1 I have chosen a Production team (Foundry) to base my answer on. I am going to explain why it is important to praise team’s performance; Team effectiveness – It essential to know if teams are hitting targets that have been set for them and if there are any. If you cannot measure the team’s contribution in some type of way you won’t

Analyse And Assess The Contribution Of Feminist Research To Our Understanding Of Society

1978 words - 8 pages society. Although feminist perspectives have helped our understanding of society it is useful to look at different perspectives such as functionalism and Marxism.Ray Pawson's research has helped our understanding of society as he distinguishes between the weak thesis and the strong thesis of feminist research methods. In terms of the weak thesis, research methods in sociology are essentially sound. But there is a problem, this is that in practice

The Aim Of Feminist Theology Is Simply To Seek Equality Between Men And Women

1078 words - 5 pages 'The aim of feminist theology is simply to seek equality between women and men' Discuss. Feminist theology is a movement found in many religions. Feminist theology aims to reconsider the traditions, scriptures and theologies of those religions from a feminist perspective. It can be argued that feminist theology just wants equality between men and women, however, It can also be put across that seeking equality is not their only aim. Liberal

Related Papers

Compare And Contrast The Work Of Harry Harlow And Mary Ainsworth On Understanding

1537 words - 7 pages having the children constantly monitored to reduce upset (Custance 2010) and in contrast to Harlow, one could say she replicated experiences that would not be unusual in the life of a small child. Any distress was short-term. Techniques she developed continue to be used today and procedures would not likely be considered unethical. Ainsworth was also criticised for her work not being ecologically valid (not being a true representation of a real

The Life And Work Of Leonardo Da Vinci, King Henry Viii, And Sir Isaac Newton

1632 words - 7 pages in1482 to create sculpture and paint. He would also work in the fields of science and architecture. The Duke would have him design new weapons, buildings, and other architecture that has never been seen before. This started a new era for science and architecture. He had so many new ideas for art and new inventions to create that he ended up not finishing most of his work that he started resulting in him finishing only about six works of art in the

Discipleship Through Daily Life And Work For A Christian

818 words - 4 pages Discipleship Through Daily Life and Work for a Christian The meaning of discipleship is (one who follows or one who learns) this meaning has not changed over the centuries. Though the first disciples were not fully understood and were rejected. This is also true for the disciples existing these days. The Bible is the most important reference for a Christian today. It contains all sorts of stories from the Old

This Is A Review Of The Life Of Female Writer Charlotte Bronte. Her Most Popular Work Was "Jane Eyre."

384 words - 2 pages typhoid fever. Charlotte and Emily were removed from the school and educated at home in HaworthThe four remaining children drew together for comfort. Voracious readers, they created imaginary kingdoms to entertain themselves. Charlotte was sent to another school where she became a member of the staff in 1835. Unhappy in education, she became a governess for a short period of time. She felt that life as a governess left her feeling incomplete