The Multi-store Memory Model
The Multi-store Memory Model
Atkinson and Shiffrin where the two psychologists who explained how our memory works by ‘The Multi-store Memory Model ‘. This model suggest that our mind has 3 different storage system:
1. Sensory memory
2. Short term memory
3. Long term memory
These three memories are different in term of 4 key features:
4. Reason for forgetting
Sensory memory is the shortest-term element of memory. It acts as a kind of buffer for stimuli received through the five senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch, which are remembered accurately, but very briefly. For example, ...view middle of the document...
He used the digit span test with every letter in the alphabet and numbers apart from “w” and “7” because they had two syllables. He found out that people find it easier to recall numbers rather than letters. The duration of short term memory seems to be between 15 and 30 seconds, according to Atkinson and Shiffrin (1971). Items can be kept in short term memory by repeating them verbally (acoustic encoding), a process known as rehearsal.
Using a technique called the Peterson technique which prevents the possibility of retrieval by having participants count backwards in 3s, Peterson and Peterson (1959) showed that the longer the delay, the less information is recalled. The rapid loss of information from memory when rehearsal is prevented is taken as an indication of short term memory having a limited duration and this also results in us forgetting. Other researchers such as Sebrechts et al. (1989) did an experiment where participants recalled 3 stimulus words well if tested immediately, but recall was almost zero after 4 seconds. This supports the notion that STM has a very limited duration when data is not released.
In 1974 another experiment was carried out by Rietman where concentration of participants disturbed, recall of 5 words after 15 sec drops by 24% which again supports the concept that with no rehearsal information disappears.
Long term memory: it seems likely that long-term memory actually decays very little over time, and can store a seemingly unlimited amount of information almost indefinitely. One of the earliest and most influential distinctions of long term memory was projected by Tulving (1972). He proposed a distinction between episodic, semantic and procedural memory.
Episodic memory refers to our ability to recall personal experiences from our past. When we recount events that happened during our childhood or what we ate for breakfast, we are employing our long-term episodic memory. As its name suggests, this aspect of memory organizes information around episodes in our lives. When we try to recall the information, we attempt to reconstruct these episodes by picturing the events in our minds. Episodic memory enables us to recall not only events, but also information related to those events.
Semantic memory stores facts and generalized information. It contains verbal information, concepts, rules, principles, and problem-solving skills. While episodic memory stores information as images, semantic memory stores information in networks. Information is most easily stored in semantic memory when it is meaningful - that is, easily related to existing, well-established plans.
Procedural memory refers to the ability to remember how to perform a task or to employ a strategy. The steps in various procedures are apparently stored in a series of steps, or stimulus-response pairings. When we retrieve information from procedural memory, we retrieve one step, which triggers the next, which triggers the next, etc.
A lot of experiments...