This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Origin Of Modern Humans Essay

2262 words - 10 pages

Throughout history, humans have asked many questions in regards to our own beginnings. Religion and science have examined what makes us who we are, and have tried to answer the enduring question of our own modern origins. Scientifically, theories are still debated as to when, where, and how modern Homo sapiens came to be what they are today. There are two major theories that now dominate the discussions of experts in the field of biological anthropology: the “Out-of-Africa” model and the “Multiregional” model of evolution. Stringer and Andrews argue that genetic and paleontological evidence supports a more recent Out-of-Africa model as opposed to a more drawn out Multiregional method that ...view middle of the document...

Cladistically speaking, the Out-of-Africa version would be a more likely answer to the origin of modern humans due to it requiring less independently acquired traits. This seems to be a common reason as to why advocates of the Out-of-Africa model tend to disagree with the Multiregional hypothesis, but before this debate can really take off, Wolpoff et al make something very clear: “Multiregional” does not necessarily equate to parallel evolution (130). This is pivotal in determining which theory is more likely to have occurred. As Pearson astutely points out, these models of human origins are often defined differently by different researchers (145). In order to debate two topics, it is important that all parties can agree on exactly what each side means. This is the central argument in the article entitled “Multiregional, Not Mutiple Origins” by Wolpoff et al.
In this article, Wolpoff et al begin by debunking a 1998 article by Chu et al which claims that the multiregional model of evolution must be wrong due to contradicting genetic evidence (130). Instead Wolpoff et al insist that multiregional evolution uses a mechanism that is opposite of independently acquiring traits (130). They explain that the multiregional method works by creating enough distance to allow for local distinctions between various groups of humans, yet these groups remain close enough to promote widespread evolutionary change in all of them (130). Wolpoff et al does go on to admit that the multiregional theory could be easily disproven if somehow we could trace every single genetic locus to one population of African based humans. A group that contains every single locus has yet to be found though (131). Wolpoff et al also keenly point out that the Out-of-Africa model actually calls for parallel evolution itself. Because the Out-of-Africa model calls for all variation to be the effect of cladogenesis (branching), followed by anagenesis, they attest that those who write off the multiregional model due to it promoting parallel evolution are blatantly wrong (132). To conclude their article, Wolpoff et al reassert that the multiregional model does not imply having various multiple, independent origins, but rather relies on genic exchange (134).
Stringer and Andrews published an article in 1988 entitled “Genetic and Fossil Evidence for the Origin of Modern Humans.” In this article, they claim that the multiregional method is based on the idea that Homo erectus arose in Africa then traveled throughout the world (1263). It wasn’t until later that modern humans arose through “a series of evolutionary grades” (1263). This, Stringer and Andrews say is false. Using modern genetic data, Stringer and Andrews argue that the structure of the multiregional model is right in that it says distance allows for distinct derived traits to arise in separated populations, but these populations weren’t spread through Eurasia. Instead, these populations first were geographically isolated in...

Other Essays Like The Origin Of Modern Humans

The Origin Of Basketball And I

1661 words - 7 pages of wire. It also made it a little easier to score because the players could now bank the ball off the backboard and this meant that the players didn't have to shoot directly at the hoop, so it made it a little harder to defend the person with the ball ("Basketball"). The courts often had a cage around them to keep the fans from just walking on the court at will. This is the origin of the term "Cagers" which referred to the

Negative Impact Of Humans On The Environment

1694 words - 7 pages The Impact of Humans on the Environment The human population on the planet now tallies in at over 6 billion. Many experts believe this population may double in the next half-century, as expressed in A Special Moment in History by Bill McKibben. Humans are undoubtedly the 'rulers' of this earth, but we have not been good rulers. In fact in our years of monumental growth as a species, our relationship to our kingdom, the

Article Review On The Origin Of Old-Earth

961 words - 4 pages The Origin of Old –Earth Geology …21st Century Diane Hammonds Dr. Travis Bradshaw PHSC210B11 September 3, 2014 Introduction This article review will provide the reader with a brief overview of Dr. Mortenson’s article, Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century, which was written on August 5, 2003. One will also read about Dr. Mortenson’s strengths and weaknesses as an author of his article. It

A Brief Look at the Origin of Algebra

884 words - 4 pages A Brief Look at the Origin of Algebra Connie Beach Professor Clifton E. Collins, Sr. Math 105: Introduction to College Mathematics May 22, 2010   Abstract In this paper we look at the history of algebra and some of its different writers. Algebra originated in ancient Egypt and Babylon around 1650 B.C. Diophantus of Alexandria, a Greek mathematician, and Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī, a Persian mathematician from Baghdad

Are We Humans the Product of Nature or Nurture?

792 words - 4 pages Are we humans the product of nature or nurture? Nature is how much of your personality is genetic, what you were born with. Nurture is how much of your personality was caused because of your environment, how you were raised. So does nature or nurture contribute more to someone's personality and behaviour? Or do they both play a role in shaping our lives? I hope to come to a conclusion with this debate in the end of my thesis. With

The Communion of Humans and God Via Food

1987 words - 8 pages -style food practice as cultural decrees tended to reign over my food choices. Many of the foods that I avoided were perfectly edible from a biological standpoint, but were inedible from a religious perspective. Humans are taught, in the early stages of life, which foods are acceptable depending on the group to which he or she belongs. “The choice of what is acceptable to eat plays a major role in defining the culture—whether of a nation, a tribe, a

The Origins Of Modern Science

3252 words - 14 pages The origins of modern science date to the seventeenth century, a period so marked by innovative thinking that it has been called the `century of genius.'...Breaking free of the bonds of tradition, these sixteenth-century thinkers developed the scientific method, a means of understanding based on a systematic observation of natural phenomena and experimentation regarding causes and effects (Merriman, 311). The ideas of many scientists, and

A Philosophical Enquiry Into The Origin Of Our Ideas Of The Sublime And Beautiful: Edmund Burke

1611 words - 7 pages marketing" and culture industries and their products are spreaded, it is inevitable to put back on scene the aesthetic reflection that accompanies the Enlightenment movement of the 18th century. For them, one of the great aesthetic categories traditions will be discussed: the sublime, starting from one of the most influential texts in the history of aesthetics published in 1757 by Edmund Burke, " A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our

The Origin of Football

534 words - 3 pages Football has been played in Europe for centuries. It began as a mob type game that was popular in the middle ages. The balls were inflated pig bladders, and the rules were a little dicey, but if you jumped into a time machine and went back to watch these mob games you would recognize the basic elements of football as we know it today. Ball games are actually as old as recorded history, and many cultures around the world have played games that

The History of the Modern Computer

3545 words - 15 pages A computer is a programmable machine that receives input, stores and manipulates data, and provides output in a useful format. Although mechanical examples of computers have existed through much of recorded human history, the first electronic computers were developed in the mid-20th century (1940–1945). These were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs). Modern computers based on

The Beliefs Of The Modern Conservative Party

611 words - 3 pages The Beliefs of the Modern Conservative Party The Conservatives, claim they come from every walk of life, all classes, from lower, to middle, to rich businessmen types. It is true, that in every community in the country, there are a large number of people with the conservative mindset, this mindset believes in common values that society has shared for 100’s of years. The traditional family, that socializes children into

Related Papers

The Existence Of Super Humans Essay

1749 words - 7 pages " program would successfully create super humans, although not in time to stop the Allied victory. The program stemmed from research on a large meteorite unearthed in Tibet in 1935. The meteorite, later captured by American forces and nicknamed "the Rock," emanated a strange form of radiation that, when exposed to a human fetus, could result in that child developing superpowers later in life. Only a small percentage of the subjects developed

Milton: The Achievement Of Humans Essay

1217 words - 5 pages ). “[For humans] an idea is like a virus, resilient, highly contagious. The smallest seed of an idea can grow” (Nolan).The need for this unattainable knowledge “can grow to define or destroy you” (Nolan). Thus, Books I & IX declare that the power of Lucifer ultimately catalyzes the downfall of mankind, including Milton himself. When Milton “wrote of Angels & God, and at liberty when of Devils & Hell, is because he was a true Poet and of the Devils

The Beginnings Of Super Humans Essay

596 words - 3 pages The Beginnings of Super Humans The ideal body of an athlete is all muscle and no fat. It is the body many athletes choose to compromise their health in hopes of obtaining that perfect image of super strength and agility. On top of those abilities, imagine being able to eat whatever you want. That is exactly what a 3-year-old named Liam Hoekstra can do while holding the title of “World’s Strongest Toddler.” Liam was born with a rare genetic

Maria Montessori : The Origin Of Our Method

795 words - 4 pages Assignment 0 I. Writing a précis “The origin of our method” In this chapter Maria Montessori inform us that the first school for small children was opened January 6, 1907 and at that time there was no special system of instruction. The students were around 50 poor children and the classroom a room in the apartment house Maria Montessori had already worked with children of subnormal intelligence and had used objects that