Many dynasties and kingdoms have ruled the area of what we now call the Middle East. In almost all of the societies, it is the wealthier, educated, and a particular race or ethnicity that ruled. These positions were usually acquired through power, either by a civil war or an overthrow of the previous government. From the late eleventh century to the reign of Mohammed Ali in the early to mid nineteenth century, whoever were the ruling elite was able to shape the direction and development of country or territory in three different ways; socially, economically and politically. By controlling the policies of the government the ruling elite was able to control the economics of the country and socially constructing it as well in the process.
The policies in the regions vary from area to area due to the ruling power. Some harsh to their society and imply policies that favor a ...view middle of the document...
In August of 1514, 12,000 Ottoman soldiers were carrying the gun. The Safawid army that carried swords and trained in the hippodromes was annihilated. If the government would have allowed the usage of the gun, the soldiers would have stood a chance. The Ottoman empire, through this new technology was able to become the largest empire in history. (Cultural Reader, 52-63)
The policies in which a ruling government imposes determines the economic development and direction of a country. As new rulers come into a country a transformation of culture and economics. With the Ottomans ruling many areas of the Middle East were becoming more dependant on Europe. With Europe being the center of business of the time, trade between the two regions was at an all time high. Europeans were eager to get the spices, cloth and other items from the ‘orient’. The opposite was also occurring. The Ottomans were importing the newest technology at that time and distributing it around the region, including new weapons and ideas. (Cultural Reader, 65-66)
The Middle East was studying the education and policies of Europe becoming more industrialized and westernized in the process at the time period following the Ottoman rule. New ideas like representation in foreign lands were evolving. Also, the ruler of Egypt, Mohammed Ali reformed education, creating a new generation of enlightened pupils fluent in many languages. Through his policies the ideas of private ownership of land and centralization of government were beginning to be heard around Egypt. (Cultural Reader, 67-70)
Because of the policies of the Mamluk rulers, soldiers were not able to fight off the Ottomans. The Ottomans implementing trade with Europe was successful in industrialized the Middle East. Mohammed Ali took the new technology and drove the Ottoman empire out of Egypt, were he centralized the government implemented private ownership of land. By each different ruling elite coming into power the region had many advances of political, economic and social construction.