The Significance Of D Day Essay

1955 words - 8 pages

D-Day Description

Before I begin I must tell you of the start of World War II. August 1939, Hitler sends a secret telegram to Joseph Stalin, the Soviet leader. In the secret telegram Hitler writes that the tension between Germany and Poland is unbearable. Stalin replies to Hitler a few days later with his word that he will not interfere with their plans. Britain and France here about this and warns Hitler that if Germany invades Poland that they are prepared to go to war. On September, 1st Germany, using blitzkrieg tactics, invades Poland. The Poles, being very unprepared, suffer the ferocity of the Germany?s attack. Two days later Britain and France declare war against the Axis. This ...view middle of the document...

Although the Allies invasion plans were well underway, they were unsure whether a cross-channel invasion would be possible in the spring of 1943. Under Sir Frederick E Morgan?s command a planning team was assembled to study the possibilities in March 1943. By this time the Americans were becoming more impatient. By June 1943, German U-boats had been largely destroyed by Allied anti-submarine sea and air and had withdrawn from the North Atlantic. With U-boats defeated, a safe passage from America to Britain was created. The flow of supplies and equipment from the U.S.A. to Britain supply depots was enabled. Finally, in late November 1943, ?the big three? leaders Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin (who broke ties with Germany earlier in the war) set a course at the Tehran Conference in Iran. At this time the British concurred with Soviets and Americans that an invasion was to come. D-Day in Europe had become imperative and as Stalin said ?The history of war does not know an undertaking comparable to it for wit of conception, grand of scale and mastery of execution.? The overall D-Day strategy encompassed two significant challenges: first to cross mile of open water with a vast army without being seen and then to fight a battle like no other.
As D-Day drew nearer preparations were being made. Roosevelt chose General Dwight D. Eisenhower was chosen to be the Supreme Commander of the in invasion. For ground forces, British General Bernard Montgomery was chosen. The outline of the attack was fairly simple but executing it would not be easy. Crossing the English Channel with its unpredictable storms, large tides and massive currents would be just the first step of thousands. Operation Overload, as it was called, prioritized secrecy. Forces were assembled in southern England to prevent details of the plan from leaking out. To mislead the Germans about the actual landing site deceptive measurers were taken. In Dover, England phoney replicas of tanks and aircraft were constructed of cardboard, plywood or rubber. Dover was a town closest to the European mainland and just opposite the city of Calais, France. An effort was made to make the Germans believe the invasion would be launched from Dover. This strategic measure worked so well that German main forces were kept in Calais. Beaches around Caen and the Contention Peninsula in Northern France were focused by allied planners, rather than those of Calais. Even though the travelling distance was longer, what the site chosen had to offer was a much greater advantage than disadvantage. Small amounts of defence fortifications and beachhead suited for successful exits. The bow on top was an isolated battlefield that the Germans would have difficulty reinforcing. The date was set for May 1, 1944, to allow for a dawn invasion at low tide, when beach obstacles would be visible. May 1 would not be a reasonable date due to shortage of landing craft and therefore...

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