This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Spinal Cord And Spinal Cord Injury

1300 words - 6 pages

INTRODUCTION
The spinal cord is a major channel in the body where motor and sensory information travels from the brain to the body. It has white matter that surrounds a central gray matter. The gray matter is where most of the neuronal cells are located. Injury to the spinal cord will affect the conduction of information across any part of the spinal cord where the damage is located (Maynard et al., 1997). This will often result in permanent disability of a certain muscle or region of the body (Meletis et al., 2008) and a loss of tissue where the damage is located (Peng et al., 2009). As of now, there is no treatment for spinal cord injury expect for steroids. All steroids can do ...view middle of the document...

, 2005). Treatments for spinal cord injury will be discussed in this review, along with different factors that contribute to these treatments.

DISCUSSION
The adult central nervous system has limited regeneration. Studies have been done trying to decrease secondary injury and increase cell regeneration in the spinal cord. Some studies have suggested that secondary injury should be preventable (Peng et al., 2009). Research of P2X7 antagonists showed that damage to oligodendrocytes and myelin was preventable. It also showed improvement in action potentials as well (Domercq et al., 2009). Tissue samples after the transplantation of human embryonic stem cell derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells showed strength in the white and gray matter where the injury occurred. They also helped save motor neurons as well (Sharp, Frame, Siegenthaler, Nistor, & Keirstead, 2010). These two studies show that a future treatment for spinal cord injury could be possible.

Antagonist of the ATP-sensitive receptor P2X7
ATP signaling is involved with inflammation for spinal cord injuries. Right after spinal cord injury, astrocytes release ATP which rapidly activates microglia and this will form a barrier between healthy and injured tissue (Domercq et al., 2009). Spinal cord neurons respond to this ATP signaling by firing excessively. This is then followed by increases in calcium concentration that cannot be reversed, and then cell death will occur. These events may be stopped by the P2X7 receptor antagonist (Peng et al., 2009). Spinal cord injury is partly due to the long exposure time of the P2X7 receptor activation. This will result in neuronal excitotoxicity (Domercq et al., 2009). Studies have shown that injecting the P2X7 receptor antagonist into the area of the spinal cord that contained the major damage would reduce the overall spinal cord damage (Peng et al., 2009).
There are three unique properties that P2X7 receptors contain. The first property is the fact that they have high calcium ion permeability. Second, these receptors can be activated at resting membrane potential and do not require any membrane depolarization. Lastly, they do not desensitize and after being open for a long period of time, they can open a large pore that will cause cytolytic cell death. It is thought that during damage to the spinal cord, high levels of ATP are released that can activate the P2X7 receptor. In pure cultures, P2X7 receptor antagonist are thought to provide protect against the effects of P2X7. This is due to blocking the receptors instead of trying to stop the inflammatory effects. Because the antagonists can selectivly mediate the activation of P2X7, it is the perfect candidate for the therapeutic treatment of spinal cord injurys (Domercq et al., 2009).

Stem Cell Research
Stem cells are located in the spinal cord and they are hard to identify (Konstantinos et al., 2008). Human embryonic stem cells have advantages that other cell...

Other Essays Like The Spinal Cord And Spinal Cord Injury

Long Spine Board Immobilization, An Overused Pre-Hospital Intervention

1866 words - 8 pages patients has long been the industry standard, but studies that prove patients benefit from the procedure are lacking and some studies have shown that spinal immobilization can actually be detrimental to patients. While true spinal cord trauma is a devastating injury its actual incidence is extremely low. In a study that examined one million trauma victims, only 2% had true spinal cord damage and of that 2%, only 1% had neurological deficits of

Stem Cell Research Essay

850 words - 4 pages breakthroughs and are slated for disposal. (Staff, 2006) The advantage of using stem cell research program is to help with all the birth defect, cancer, generic disorder problem; use can use the stem cell for the medical research project. What about the story on the actor Mr. Reeves, the gentleman play superman. Did anyone new his name was Georges Reeves. He has a spinal cord injury because of a horse riding accident. He was trying to get the

Stem Cell

1598 words - 7 pages successfully used in human therapies for many years. As of this moment, no therapies in humans have ever been successfully carried out using embryonic stem cells. New therapies using adult type stem cells, on the other hand, are being developed all the time.  Significance of the Study Stem cell therapy is a potential treatment for spinal cord injury and different stem cell types has been grafted into animal models and humans suffering from spinal

Nervous Systems, Function and Survival

902 words - 4 pages processes which maintain homeostasis. (Datta et al. 2006 pp.8-10) In invertebrates the nervous system consists of either a nerve net (such as in jellyfish) or neurons grouped together forming ganglia which make up the nerve cord, or CNS of the organism (as found in earthworms). (Datta et al. 2006 pp.47-9) In contrast the nervous system in vertebrates can be divided into two parts, the brain (the control centre of the body) and the spinal cord

Applying Orem's Theory to Care for Patients with Neurogenic Bladder

2465 words - 10 pages cases have spinal tumors which may cause compression of the spinal nerves and cancer patients who have undergone sacrectomies, all end up with neurogenic bladder. This neurogenic bladder problems may be temporary or a permanent problem with lifelong intervention so as to prevent complications like the urinary tract infections and sepsis. As this is one of the major concerns among the rehabilitation group of spinal cord injury patients, creating

Sensory System Examination

1184 words - 5 pages Sensory System Examination Detailed examination of sensory system is a time consuming and difficult assessment and is rarely tested in the exam. In case, you need to perform the sensory exam (e.g. child with sensory symptoms, spinal cord lesion or peripheral nerve disorder) unexpectedly, the following section will help you to cover the basics. The sensory exam includes testing for spinothalamic tract (pain, light touch and temperature

Pathology Signs and Symptoms - Essay

729 words - 3 pages a viral infection. It is also associated with taking aspirin. For this reason, it’s not recommended for children to use aspirin. Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)- Temporary interference with blood supply to the brain, causing neurological symptoms such as dizziness, numbness, and hemiparesis. May eventually lead to a full-blown stroke (cerebrovascular accident). Spinal Cord Myelomeningocele- Congenital condition in which the meninges and

The Brain 5

710 words - 3 pages communication center. The central nervous system and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system is made of nerves. Together they control your daily life, from breathing and blinking to helping you memorize facts for a test. Nerves reach from your face, ears, eyes, nose, and spinal cord, and from the spinal cord to the rest of your body. Sensory send information from the environment, send that information into the spinal cord, which sends a

Nervous System

708 words - 3 pages The Nervous System is the system of cells, tissues, and organs that regulates the body's responses to internal and external stimuli. In vertebrates it consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia, and parts of the receptor and effector organs. Your nervous system is composed of the central nervous system, the cranial nerves, and the peripheral nerves. The brain and spinal cord together form the central nervous system. The cranial nerves

Topic Outline

1195 words - 5 pages fatty tissue called myelin sheath. The myelin sheath provides insulation to avoid signals from other neurons to interfere with each other and it also increases speed when signals are been transmitted. Motor neurons carry messages from the spinal cord or the brain to the muscles and glands. Al l neurons in the nervous system only speak one language ON or OFF electrochemical impulses. The communication process of neurons in the work by impulses or

The Purpose and Function of Lumbar Brace

875 words - 4 pages may indicate nerve involvement. Step 3: Imaging studies such as x-rays, CT scan and or MRI studies are performed when fracture or neurologic dysfunction is suspected. An MRI is the standard imaging today. It records images of spinal tissues such as the spinal cord and intervertebral discs. X-rays are still used today but are used for the bony elements in the lower back. Step 4: if there is a possibility of other variables that lead to suspected

Related Papers

Spinal Cord Essay

1827 words - 8 pages SPINAL CORD INJURY TYPES/CLASSIFICATIONS: Determined by Mechanism of injury Level of injury Degree of injury Mechanisms: • Hyperflexion- as when chin makes contact with the chest • Flexion with rotation- chin makes contact with chest and head or body is turned • Hyperextension- head is tilted all the way back • Axial loading- impact on the top of the head â

Spinal Cord Essay

2005 words - 9 pages SPINAL CORD I. INTRODUCTION: • It is derived from the caudal part of the neural tube. • It is surrounded by three membranes, the meninges—the outer dura mater, the middle arachnoid mater and the inner pia mater. II. EXTERNAL MORPHOLOGY: A. LOCATION OF SPINAL CORD • It extends in adults, from the foramen magnum to the lower border of the L1 vertebra. • In newborns, it extends to the L3 vertebra. • It is continuous

Changes Which Have Occurred In Australia Through Public Health Interventions To Improve Injury And Mortality Rates From Road Accidents Since The First Recorded Motor Vehicle Accident In 1924 And Why...

970 words - 4 pages Changes which have occurred in Australia through public health interventions to improve injury and mortality rates from road accidents since the first recorded motor vehicle accident in 1924 and why it is still a public health issue today in 2014 Changes which have occurred in Australia through public health interventions to improve injury and mortality rates from road accidents since the first recorded motor vehicle accident in 1924 and why it

The Human Nervous System Essay

869 words - 4 pages system may involve the following: * Vascular disorders, such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage and hematoma, and extradural hemorrhage * Infections, such as meningitis, encephalitis, polio, and epidural abscess * Structural disorders, such as brain or spinal cord injury, Bell's palsy, cervical spondylosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, brain or spinal cord tumors, peripheral neuropathy, and