This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Spread Of Disease In The New World

1846 words - 8 pages

The Spread of Disease In the New World

The extraordinary good health of the natives prior to the coming of the Europeans would become a key ingredient in their disastrous undoing. The greatest cause of disease in America was epidemic diseases imported from Europe. Epidemic diseases killed with added virulence in the " virgin soil" populations of the Americas. The great plague that arose in the Old World never emerged on their own among the western hemisphere and did not spread across oceans until Columbus' discovery.

Disease and parasitism play a pervasive role in all life. Many of these diseases start with microparasites, which are characterized by their ability to reproduce ...view middle of the document...

e. the lack of bathing). The traumatic route of infection is through insect and animal bites.

The objective of the host is to "escape" from the pathogen. This can be done through the use of the immune system or by quickly dying. When a host dies with the pathogen still inside the pathogen dies as well. Resistance to invaders evolved as a result of the development of the mechanism of immunity. The development of immunity depends on the recognition of differences in chemical structures of substances. The first requirement of an immunological system is to be able to recognize substances which are foreign to the host. These substances, known as antigens, stimulate the immune system by producing antibodies.

When infection persists in a community the individuals are regularly exposed to the particular antigenic stimulus which confers on them an immunity which persists through life (Linton, 156). Immunological protection is dependent on repeated stimulation. Isolated communities may elude exposure to an infection for years. A population totally made up of non-immune individuals may be referred to as "virgin soil" populations. Such is the case with the New World. The New World inhabitants had no previous exposure to the Old World disease and therefore carried no immunity for them. The longer a community eludes disease the greater the proportion of susceptible individuals within it ( Linton, 156). Once a disease is introduced from locality to another outbreaks will occur.
Europeans, having already encountered these pathogens, acquired immunities over the years due to prolonged interaction. Prolonged interaction between host (human) and infectious organisms, carried across many generations, creates a pattern of mutual adaptation, which allows both to survive. Until European advancement into America, the Indians did not have any previous exposure to these pathogens.

Small pox, typhus, diphtheria, measles, mumps, and whooping cough are just a few of the new diseases introduced into America. Diphthereia, meaning 'leather" in Greek, did not invade tissues but rather remained on the mucous membrane producing powerful toxins that killed cells. It was spread from person to person or by infected articles. The main cause of concern was suffocation by this thick, leather-like mucous membrane. Whooping cough was passed through direct transmission. It invaded the lungs when resistance was lowered by other viral infections. Pulmonary complications associated with this disease may lead to death and chronic inflammations of the lung lead to prolonged illnesses. Typhus was carried from man to man. It consists of an acute infectious fever, weakness, hemorrhagic rash and mental apathy pushing into stupor (Linton, 134). Small pox is passed directly from host to host with no intermediary carrier and with minimal delay. Severe headaches, backaches, chills and fevers develop rapidly. Eventually these symptoms are replaced by a rash of hard red lumps that after...

Other Essays Like The Spread of Disease In the New World

Children of the New World Essay

1533 words - 7 pages Children of the New World: Acting out “The role of Algerian women in their own society has rarely been what it has seemed” (Heggoy 1). Prior to the Algerian war, women in Algerian society were under patriarchal rule and, under such rule, were expected to meet certain expectations. Among other rules and regulations, Algerian women were prohibited from being outside their home unaccompanied and were required to keep themselves heavily “veiled” at

The New World of Braves Essay

1321 words - 6 pages with their positions and treatments, the more that I want to show them this book and share my experience with them. I want them to see the truth, just as I do. But this book is forbidden in anywhere under the World State’s control and if this only copy of Macbeth is confiscated, I cannot share the messages within the book. Perhaps, I can use my holiday vacations as an excuse to travel to America where I can get copies of this play and smuggle

The Cost of Stability in Brave New World – Freedom

4087 words - 17 pages Conditioning the citizens to like what they have and reject what they do not have is an authoritative government’s ideal way of maximizing efficiency. The citizens will consume what they are told to, there will be no brawls or disagreements and the state will retain high profits from the earnings. People can be conditioned chemically and physically prior to birth and psychologically afterwards. The novel, Brave New World, takes place in the

The Rise And Spread Of Islam

1446 words - 6 pages Allah,” and later these revelations became holy scripts in the Quran. Muhammad started off with very few followers but as the faith of Allah started to spread, he gained more followers and he became a threat to Mecca’s rulers. As mentioned in World Civilization, “in 622 Muhammad left Mecca for Medina where his skilled leadership brought new followers.” In Medina, Muhammad became the religious authority in the area and he used this power to

The Representation of Family and Sexuality in “Brave New World” and “Love on the Dole”

1941 words - 8 pages The Representation of family and sexuality in “Brave new world” and “Love on the Dole” Through the centuries, both family life and sexuality were very important to every human being, not only as a mean of procreation, but also as an irreplaceable source of mental stability and happiness. Both equally important - when the child is born as an effect of procreation, there must be a family to raise it. Unfortunately, even today

The History of Disease

880 words - 4 pages most significant invention of the sixteenth century, the microscope, was invented. Throughout the history of disease, new infections have suddenly appeared. Three diseases that have emerged in the past twenty years are AIDS, H1N1, and tuberculosis. Of these three emerging diseases the most rapidly growing disease is AIDS. AIDS is the final and most serious stage of HIV disease, which causes severe damage to the immune system. The first cases

The Use Of Soma To Shape And Control Society In Huxley's Brave New World

1754 words - 8 pages The Use of Soma to Shape and Control Society in Huxley's Brave New World The future of the world is a place of thriving commerce and stability. Safety and happiness are at an all-time high, and no one suffers from depression or any other mental disorders. There are no more wars, as peace and harmony spread to almost every corner of the world. There is no sickness, and people are predestined to be happy and content in their social class

Theme Of Control In "One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest" And "Brave New World"

1987 words - 8 pages encouragement of promiscuous sexual activity. These distractions are yet again another method of control to facilitate the functioning of society. In a suppressed state, rebellion is inevitable and this comes in the form of McMurphy in Cuckoo’s Nest and The Savage in Brave New World. McMurphy enters the ward largely due to his own actions and sees it as a way to escape the work farm on which he was forced to serve, the lesser of two evils. He

“the New World” Comparative Analysis

879 words - 4 pages “The New World” directed by Terrence Malik is a movie about the first explorers to the Americas. It is about the early settlers who first colonized in Jamestown, Virginia. The movie and the stories by John Smith are mainly about him and his men in the colonies. They express the views of John Smith and his story of the colonies in early times. The stories and the movie are about the same events and same people, but are conveyed in different ways

The Struggle For Independence In A New World

1178 words - 5 pages The Struggle for Independence in a New World In Anzia Yezierska's novel Bread Givers, we learn about a struggle between Sara Smolinsky and her father. Her father, an Orthodox rabbi, is stuck in the traditions of the old world and will not tolerate Sara's longing for independence. This novel takes place in New York's Lower East Side, where the population mainly consists of Jewish immigrants who have come to America in hopes of living a

Spread of the American Culture: Good or Bad?

687 words - 3 pages Corryne Nixon September 23,2011 The Spread of American Culture: Good or Bad? The American culture is suitable to other countries because it shows them what we value in our society. In America the major thing we value is time. We have so many different words that have the meaning. America is a country that moves at a fast pace. Everyone is in a rush to get what needs to be done. Not only does America value time, but also money

Related Papers

European Disease In The New World

673 words - 3 pages European Disease in the New World Humans possess an innate curiosity that drives us to explore the unknown. Documentation of exploration by sea goes as far back as 3200 B.C., when Pharaoh Snefru brought 40 ships from Byblus to Phoenicia, followed by the first recorded expedition of exploration from Egypt in 2750 B.C, (http://www.mariner.org/age/histexp.html). Events such as these would eventually give way to a period of vigorous

Puritans In The New World Essay

1024 words - 5 pages Journalist Alistair Cooke wrote, “People, when they first come to America, whether as travelers or settlers, become aware of a new and agreeable feeling: that the whole country is their oyster.” This proved to be true with the Puritans and their arrival in the new world. They traveled to the New World to escape religious persecution from the Church of England. They were pushed out for being too extreme. The new land provided so many

Plans In The New World Essay

899 words - 4 pages BUS 611 Project Planning and Management Dolores E. Ross Patricia White August 27, 2012 Project Plans in the New World The article reviewed Rosenwinkel opinion on project management and the project planning. In the article he stated that project planning could be a waste of time, money and manpower. It has been implemented. (Rosenwinkel, 1995) It is clear we have a different opinion about project planning. In my experience project

Treatment Of The Natives In The New World

580 words - 3 pages huge interest in the fish and fur when establishing New France. Both were a huge source of wealth, and beaver hats especially had become very popular in Europe and were of high demand (31). The French, unlike the other European colonies, took a very peaceful approach to the native people of the New World. The Indians and the French established a partnership with the fur trade. As a result of this, the Indians saw the French as military allies as