This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions Essay

964 words - 4 pages

In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (SSR) Thomas Kuhn argued that
science fluctuated between sustained periods of normal science and periods of
chaotic reshuffling, called revolutionary science.

During periods of normal science the scientific community agree on a set of
foundational/basic beliefs called the paradigm (SSR, 10). The paradigm con-
tains four basic categories of knowledge, (i) firmly established symbolic laws
(e.g., f = ma), (ii) metaphysical world-views (e.g., that matter is composed of
atoms), (iii) values (e.g., that theories should be consistent, plausible, and sim-
ple), and (iv) methodological knowledge (often a tacit understanding of how to
solve ...view middle of the document...

However, sometimes anomalies
appear so insurmountable that they destabilise the paradigm, leading to crisis
(SSR, 82). Kuhn wants to say that crises occur when an anomaly questions a
tenet(s) so intrinsically valuable to the paradigm that dismissing that tenet(s)
would lead to the collapse of the paradigm; this distinguishes problems that
lead to crisis from problems that do not. This clarification disarms Toulmin’s
(1970) criticism that such a distinction does not exist.

Crises are resolved in one of three ways (SSR, 84), (i) a solution is found and
normality returns, (ii) the anomaly/anomalies are set aside for the future gen-
erations, or (iii) a paradigm-shift takes place. In the latter case a new paradigm
will usurp an old paradigm. The new paradigm and the old paradigm are dis-
continuous; further, the new paradigm may completely abandon the previous
paradigm’s successes. Viewed generally, all scientific knowledge may someday
be succeeded – there is no “chest” of unquestionable, accumulated knowledge
(Putnam, 1978); instead, science is constantly rebooting. Kuhn says science is
non-cumulative (SSR, 92).

Paradigm-shifts are not instantaneous. First the paradigm blurs and "though
there still is a paradigm, few practitioners prove to be entirely agreed about
what it is." (SSR, 83) Within this malleable scientific environment potential
opposition paradigms arise and a sociological battle – a paradigm war – oc-
curs. Eventually a single paradigm will ascend; the scientific community will
agree on its acceptance and science will return to normality. Kuhn equivocates
these paradigm-shifts with a "change of world view" (SSR, 111-136): after a
paradigm-shift scientists see the world differently. Consider before and after the
Galilean revolution, beforehand Aristotelians [literally] saw pendulums falling
under their own weight, afterwards Galileans [literally] saw pendulums swinging
(SSR, 118-9). Kuhn is arguing that scientific observation is biased; how a sci-
entist interprets empirical fact is dependant on his paradigmatic beliefs – this
thesis is called theory-ladenness (Blackbrun, 2008). Importantly, this...

Other Essays Like The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions

The Structure of Business Decision Essay

916 words - 4 pages For Office Use: Grade WrittenAnalysis and Communication Individual Assignment No 1 Case Analysis Report On ‘The Structure of a Business Decision’ Submitted by Name : EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Mr. Nakamura recently takes over charges of his family business of lacquer ware. His brand “Chrysanthemum” is the top selling brand of only Japan. He wants to expand his business across the globe. But Japanese government does not

The Structure and Organization of Brown Industries

1188 words - 5 pages The Structure and Organization of Brown Industries MGT/230 January 16, 2014 Suzanne Dunham The Structure and Organization of Brown Industries Dr. Graeme Edwards said, “It’s not the plan that is important, it’s the planning”. Just like the diversity of people there are equally diverse businesses. Companies are managed and organized in different ways. Each organizational structure has its own management style. The organizational

Structure and Functions of the Brain

700 words - 3 pages B F C G S M C F X A S D B Clues: 1. The part of the brain located in the temporal lobe that is responsible for our emotional response. ________________ 2. The portion of the brain involved in intricate cognitive functioning. ___________________ 3. A part of the brain that belongs to the limbic system and is responsible for processing new memories. ________________ 4. A structure that is known to be a key relay station for sensory

The Ball Mill Structure of Basic Point of the Quality

737 words - 3 pages The ball mill structure of basic point of the quality_Ivylm522 The 1980s to twenty every hour crushing about 800 tons of product a big jaw crusher feed sizing reached 1800 mm equipped using the upper finish of broken cone spindle bearing inside the plaque inside center in the bush, and its reduced finish positioned inside sleeve in the eccentric hole drying equipment, crushing operations normally divided into hard broken, broken, and crushing

Analysis of the Organizational Structure of Perdue Farms

1970 words - 8 pages ANALYSIS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF PERDUE FARMS INC. Analysis of the Organizational Structure of Perdue Farms Inc. Ashton Smith MGMT 630 1121 February 23, 2014 My reason for constructing this analysis is to measure the organizational structure of the Perdue Company by using the Marcic Dimension Scale. This scale evaluates organizations by various categories that help develop a better understanding of how complex an

How Does the Idea of Scientific Observation Influence the Poetic Voice?

2570 words - 11 pages of birds (Thomson 395, 165). Another influence from the scientific sphere is that of the Latin language itself, which was favoured in the academic world due to its orderly structure and trans-national understanding amongst the educated class. The Latinate system of syntax whereby the verb or adjective comes last in a clause was invoked by Thomson where he occasionally ends clauses with the verb, for example in his illustration of how “The

How the Structure of Film Amazing Grace Is Such a Critical Part of the Film?

2113 words - 9 pages Amazing Grace is an engaging and educating film because of the complex structure that is created by director Michael Apted. It’s woven in a way that effectively conveys William Wilberforce’s deepest emotions and beliefs to the audience. In this film, Apted has to tell a story to entertain and capture his audience’s attention on the sheer determination to end the cruel era of the slave trade. He certainly does this, through thought-provoking use

The Marxist Model of Class Structure and Conflict with Reference to the Caribbean

766 words - 4 pages The Marxist model of class structure and conflict with reference to the Caribbean. Class refers to one’s position in the socialhierarchy based on accessibility to wealth, power, privilege and ownership of the means of production. Sociology has a number of sociological theories that attempt to explain how society works. A sociological theory is a set of ideas that attempt to explain a particular problem. One of these sociological theories

The Fit Between Technology and Structure as a Predictor of Performance in Nursing Sub-Units

2010 words - 9 pages [Introduction] Since a very long time, many researches are being done to observe the organizational behaviour, all having a more or less common motto – “Optimization of performance”. Effectiveness and efficiency are the most important factors to determine the company’s performance. In present day views, the fit between the technology and structure has become the focus of the discussion where as earlier theories used to have a different

Pesticides In Kerala - An Example Of Bias In The Media Pesticides In Coca Cola ,The Impact Of Scientific Researches Human Health And Multinationals

820 words - 4 pages An example of bias in the mediaPesticides in Coca Cola ,the impact of scientific researches human health and multinationalsMedias are surely the most powerful information provider of the XXIst century and have literally invaded our daily life. Not only do they relate facts but they also often contribute toform ideas, opinions and judgments. But first of all, let's study the concept of "Media".Media is composed of all kind of means used to

THE EMERGENCE OF THE NOT-SO-NUCLEAR FAMILY: A STUDY OF MODERN AMERICAN MATRIMONY AND FAMILY STRUCTURE

3097 words - 13 pages key elements. Figure 1 addresses these models. I. TRADITIONAL MARRAIGES: Reverence for Marriage as an Institution -1143005020310FIGURE II 00FIGURE II 0490601000This marriage structure is slowly becoming obsolete with the promotion of feminism and the shift to a service based economy. These marriages are divided by gender roles and are often underpinned by religion, duty and the high respect for the notion of marriage as an institution

Related Papers

“The Historical Structure Of Scientific Discovery”

690 words - 3 pages “The Historical Structure of Scientific Discovery” In Kuhn’s essay about “The Historical Structure of Scientific Discovery”, he describes the discovery of oxygen and how an individual is credited with the discovery. Throughout the essay Kuhn show that he disagrees with the current vocabulary describing how and who is the one to be accredited with the discovery of a certain thing, in this case oxygen. He believes that in many cases oxygen was

The Revolutions Of America.Docx Essay

1053 words - 5 pages The Revolutions of America, France, and Latin America Tasha Sanders HIS 104 Laura Guardino July7, 2011 The Revolutions of America, France, and Latin America The way that the American, French, and Latin American Revolutions affected the world was that they changed the economic, political, and social structure of each area forever. One difference between them was through their ruling. All of the countries ruled monarchies eventually became

Structure Of The Hair Essay

722 words - 3 pages STRUCTURE OF THE HAIR Hair is made up of dead cells. On our heads, we have hundreds of thousands of follicles, pore-like structures within the scalp that produce hair. Each follicle produces many hairs throughout our lifetime. Live hair cells are generated inside the follicle by the papilla. As the new cells grow, the older cells die and are forced along the follicle towards the scalp. The dead cells are compressed to form a protein called

The History Of Scientific Management Theories

1226 words - 5 pages In the history of management thinking, there are many ways to manage an organization, such as scientific management and administrative management. This essay will discuss the notion that scientific management was a ‘good’ idea in the history of management thinking, by looking at the historical backgrounds and political beliefs of economist, also how the develop management theory by conducting experiments, and how their theories made it into the