The Vietnamese Political System
THE HISTORY OF VIETNAM FROM NINETEENTH CENTURY
The Nineteenth Century is the initial period of imperialism and colonialism Western capitalist countries. The French colonialists began the invasion in Vietnam through missionaries and trade. From the beginning, the resistance movements under the leadership of Vietnamese intellectuals revolted everywhere. Dong Du movement by Phan Boi Chau and Duy Tan movement by Phan Chau Trinh are two most prominent movement in that time, however, both of them are suppressed by the French.
In 1930, Nguyen Ai Quoc, known as Ho Chi Minh coordinated the unification of the parties: the Indochinese Communist Party, ...view middle of the document...
At the 6th National Congress of CPV, policy was launched with the focus on economic reform, transfered from a centralized economy to a "socialist-oriented market economy", with the strengthening of the legal basis, organization renewal of Party and the State.1 “The Doi Moi policy was consistently reaffirmed throughout the later Party Congresses, social policy received greater attention, the legal system has become increasingly complete and social management based on the rule of law put into place.”[i]
THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF VIETNAM
According to Constitutions in 1992 until now, CPV is the ruling party in Vietnam as well as the only political party is permitted to operate. The organizing principle of Party is democratic centralism, performs criticism, self-criticism with strict discipline; encourages the mastery of the people and develops country towards socialism, communism.[ii] The highest organ in CPV is the National Congress (NA) with with the five-years term,[iii] has the power to promulgate or modify the charter of Party and political program, chooses the Central Committee which is the most powerful institution in the observance of the NA resolutions. It elects the Politburo, the General Secretary in one of the Politburo member and establish the Secretariat to deal the work are regulated in the Charter of Party.[iv] In addition, there are also have Central Military Commission and Central Inspection Commission which are the party organs responsible for military, defence policies and consider political quality and ethical behavior of party members.
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS AND UNION
Vietnam has six social and political organizations: Vietnamese Fatherland Front, Confederation of Labour, Vietnamese Women's Association, Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union, Veterans Association and Farmers Association. “Vietnamese Fatherland Front is a voluntary political coalition of political organizations, socio-political organizations, social organizations and individuals from all classes, social strata, ethnic groups, and religions, including overseas Vietnamese” and it represents and protects the rights and legitimate interests of citizens.[v] Vietnamese Fatherland Front, together with other organizations, have united implementation of guidelines of CPV and policies of Government.
Political organizations in Vietnam is arranged vertically with CPV holds all executive authority, different separation of powers models of the parliamentary democracy governments.[vi] The 1992 constitution confirmed the priority role of the Party, however; according to this constitution, NA is the highest representative organ of the people and is the only organization that holds the legislative power. This agency has great responsibility in monitoring all functions of government.
The National Assembly
“The National Assembly is the highest representative organ of the people, the highest organ of state power of the...