Reece and Walker (2008) State that learning is about change and can either be intentional or unintentional. Within an educational establishment learning is intentional and will be delivered using “sensory input” (Petty, 2004,p.141) in a variety of ways taking in to consideration the learners themselves and an appropriate delivery mechanism, which would fall into either the psychomotor, cognitive or affective domain.
The subject matter may pre-determine the domain used, but this may also be reinforced by using additional domains as required. Consequently the psychomotor domain would be used to “do” things, the cognitive domain would promote the knowledge of the subject, and the affective ...view middle of the document...
(Glassman on line).
This approach could be best suited to learning in a formalised pedagogic classroom environment where there is regular and appropriate feedback to the class; this is supported by Reece and Walker when they say that “we learn by receiving a stimulus that provokes a response. So long as the response is reinforced in some way that response will be repeated” (Reece and Walker,2008,p.81). In other words we are providing recognition for a task that has been completed; we are therefore providing ongoing feedback. The behaviourist approach is centred on the tutor and is tutor led and controlled throughout; it relies on a structure or curriculum to be effective and is generally associated with students learning in a passive style.
In a contrasting viewpoint when teaching andragogically a tutor might be pre disposed to use a cognitive delivery style particularly when the students concerned are able to identify the benefits of learning to their own situation. Knowles (1981, cited in Reece and Walker, 2008,p.58) supports the use of the individual’s mental processes such as thinking, knowing, memory and problem solving.
It is supported by Dewey, Bruner and Ausubel. Indeed Ausubel (cited in Curzon, 2007, p.101), states that “progressive differentiation” should be used which will initially allow the students to begin their learning together, but then diverge on to individual learning paths depending on their own ability with the support and direction of their tutor. This approach is further supported by Locke (1690, cited in Curzon 2007,p.434) where he promotes “the blank slate” arguing that “the knowledge we possess results from our senses”, in other words our desire to learn. Bandura (1977) goes further when he explains that “People learn through observing others’ behaviour, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviours”.
Vygotsky’s (Learning-Theories on line) Social Development Theory expands on this approach when he moves away from the tutor transmitting information to the student. He promotes the theory that students should take an active participation in their own learning. This is supported by the Constructivism theory of learning which states that “learning is an active, contextualised process of constructing knowledge rather than acquiring it” (Learning-Theories on line).In other words the student builds on their existing knowledge.
This style of delivery is very much focused on input and participation from the student with a mix of active and...