English 1A Section 015
18 November 2009
The Problematic Theory of Knowledge
The second problem with language is the problem of accuracy of translation. The world is filled with different cultures, and within each culture is another language, and within each language, there are different dialects so it is difficult to translate the meaning of one sentence of one language to another language (60). For example, there is a fruit called longan fruit that is typically grown in southern China. However, in Mandarin, the Chinese call it â€œlong yanâ€ which literally means â€œdragonâ€™s eye.â€ The Chinese would say â€œwo chi long yanâ€ which means â€œI am eating longan fruit.â€ However, when literally translated to English, it reads â€œI am eating a dragonâ€™s eye,â€ which is not accurate. When hearing ...view middle of the document...
It is their emotions that do not allow them to subject themselves to the opposing arguments so they do what they can to say they are right. This can be related to the idea of bias.
The last way of obtaining knowledge is through logic and reason. Every day, people use logic to reason out various problems they encounter in areas such as mathematics or science (Lagemaat 112). Reasoning can be done through two types of reasoning: deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning. In deductive reasoning, a person goes from a broad matter to a specific matter (Solomon and Higgins 16-17). For example, a person deduces that since the figure on her paper has three enclosed sides, and a triangle has three enclosed sides, the figure on her paper is a triangle. Past knowledge can be used in logic to reason out problems in order to obtain new knowledge. Inductive reasoning is the exact opposite where one goes from a specific matter to a broad matter. For example, since Hallie is composed of atoms, and Hallie is a person, then all people are composed of atoms. People rely heavily on logic on getting through the day, whether the day consists of school, or work, but, like emotion, logic and reason are open up to a lot of subjectivity.
Similar to emotion, people will try to reason out whatever they can in order to gain the upper hand in an argument, or just plain win, even if it means using false reasoning. An example of false inductive reasoning is saying that since Johnâ€™s computer has a lot of viruses and Ericâ€™s Macintosh does not have any viruses, Macs are better than computers. A person can use this sort of argument to say that Appleâ€™s Macintoshâ€™s are a lot better than Microsoftâ€™s Windowsâ€™, but in fact, they both have their pros and cons. It is false reasoning that leads people to believe something that is not entirely true.