Aug 1914 – Nov 1918 The cost of WW1 to Britain - $35,334,012,000 (highest of all the allied powers) and 994,138 British people died.
April 1919 Treaty of Versailles – Germany had to accept the blame for starting the war (Clause 231) and pay £6,600 million in reparations. She was forbidden to have submarines or an air force and could only have a navy of six battleships and an Army of just 100,000 men. She also lost territory to Britain and France.
The League of Nations – an international organisation designed to preserve the peace and solve international disputes by arbitration; based on a system of collective security (article 10). 42 countries joined at the start and ...view middle of the document...
75; France 1.75.
Oct 1922 – May 1923 Andrew Bonar Law becomes prime minister
Jan 1923 French occupation of the Ruhr – the Germans adopted a policy of passive resistance in response, which led to Hyper-inflation. In 1923 an egg cost hundreds of millions of marks.
May 1923 – Jan 1924 Stanley Baldwin becomes prime minister
Aug 1923 Stresemann appointed German Chancellor and Foreign Minister
Jan 1924 – Nov 1924 Ramsay MacDonald becomes prime minister
March 1924 Zinoviev Letter – appeared at first to confirm fears about Communism. It purported to be an instruction from the Comintern to the CPGB, instructing it to foment revolution in the UK. The letter caused considerable furore, as it was published only a few days before the 1924 General Election.
1924 General Election – Conservatives won 412 seats and Labour won 151
April – Aug 1924 Dawes Plan – meant that there would be a two-year freeze on the payment of reparations, the level of German payments was to be scaled down, the USA offered huge loans to Germany and the French agreed to take their troops out of the Ruhr. During the next 5 years the Germans paid a reparation bill of about $1 billion and received US loans of about $2 billion.
April 1924 Geneva Protocol suggested – any state refusing to submit a dispute to arbitration or rejecting the decision of an arbitrator would be regarded as an aggressor and liable to be subjected to economic sanctions or even military force.
July – Aug 1924 London Reparation Conference – Allowed for the adoption of the Dawes Plan.
Nov 1924 – June 1929 Stanley Baldwin becomes prime minister
1925 Geneva Protocol rejected
Sep 1925 Locarno Pact – secured Germany’s western borders but not its eastern borders. Stresemann did state that these should not be altered by force (he wouldn’t put his signature to this though).
1926 Germany joined League of Nations
27th Aug 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact – condemned the ‘...recourse to war for the solution of international controversies.’ It was drawn up by Aristide Briand (foreign minister of France) and Frank B. Kellogg (US Secretary of State). However, only 62 nations ultimately ratified it, rendering it virtually powerless.
1929 – 1935 Ramsay MacDonald becomes prime minister
Aug 1929 Young Plan suggested that reparations should be reduced by about 3/4 and that Germany should make annual payments on a sliding-scale up to 1988. It was adopted by the Allied Powers in 1930 and replaced the Dawes Plan.
Oct 1929 Wall Street Crash – as a result, 20% of British workforce was unemployed
1930 MacDonald gained an agreement with Japan and the US to limit naval building – USA, Britain and Japan agree to fix ratio of cruisers to 10:10:7
Aug 1931 National Government formed – to save the economy, MacDonald split the Labour Party and joined forces with the opposition in the National Government.
1931 MacDonald agreed Britain to signing the act for the peaceful settlement of international disputes
Sep 1931 Japanese army seized a...