To What Extent Was The Impact Of The First World War Responsible For The Downfall Of Tsarism In March 1917?

1720 words - 7 pages

To what extent was the impact of the First World War responsible for the downfall of Tsarism in March 1917?

In March 1917, Nicholas II abdicated and brought Tsarist’s three hundred year reign to an end. The issue of the Tsar’s downfall divides historians with two different viewpoints. The first perspective is that Russia was making progress, however it was solely undermined by the First World War in which the war caused massive losses, poor leadership and unloyality of the troops. The alternative view is that long term social, economic and political factors already existed because of the challenges of modernising the country. Together these problems contributed to the Tsar’s inability to ...view middle of the document...

The loss of the army was a major factor as to the downfall of the Tsar; in 1905 they survived the revolution because they had the power of the armed forces behind them.
Another factor that contributed the downfall of the Tsar was the mistakes Nicholas II made in monarchy. In 1915 the Tsar made the fatal decision of becoming Commander in Chief of the army and leaving his wife Alexandria in charge of Russia. This led to more hatred for the Tsar because the more the war effort faltered, more and more blame was put on Alexandria, who being German, was accused of being in sympathy with the enemy. She was also hated because she was deemed to be having an affair with Rasputin. Between September 1915 and December 1916, there were constant ministerial changes, many of which were seen as influenced by Rasputin. The social and political issues led to a breakdown of law and order in Petrograd and Nicholas was out of touch with events. This can be shown by a letter the Tsarina sent to her husband on February 26th 1917 ‘Youngsters and girls are running around shouting they have no bread’. Consequently, society’s elite were becoming increasingly disillusioned with the way that the country was being run, posing a serious threat to the Tsarist’s regime.
The defection of the army also contributed to the downfall of Tsarism, as the strikes and demonstrations in Petrograd could be put down or even controlled. Tens of thousands of women took to the street to commemorate International Women’s Day on February 23th 1917 in which revolutionary banners and slogans started to appear, the focus now is on ending the war and overthrowing the autocracy than simply wanting to obtain food. These strikes only made the situation worse for the Tsar went more than half the workforce of Petrograd went on strike. At first the Tsar relied on the army to keep control, as in the 1905 Revolution, when the Tsarist dynasty has survived because of their support, yet their loyalty was to be short lived. On the 25th February 1917, the Cossack troops, who had traditionally been loyal to the Tsar refused to fire on the protesters. Therefore, the Tsar was beginning to lose control of the army, which placed the whole regime in danger: the Tsar would no longer be able to confide in the army to support the control of the empire. The mutiny was ultimately only worsened by the creation of the workers’ soviets. On 1st March 1917, the workers’ soviets that had begun forming the previous week joined forces to make the Petrograd Soviet; this was similar to the 1905 revolution, when the St. Petersburg was created. The Petrograd Soviet issued for an ‘Order Number One’ which demanded that all officers of the army be elected by their men. This, combined with the mutiny, increased the downfall of the Tsar’s authority and command over the army.
On the other hand, prior to the First World War some long term factors can contribute to the reasoning of the downfall of Tsarism. Firstly, there were social...

Other Essays Like To What Extent Was the Impact of the First World War Responsible for the Downfall of Tsarism in March 1917?

To What Extent Is Germany Responsible For The Start Of World War One?

2282 words - 10 pages Serbia and to deploy the major portion of its troops against Russia'; Austria can be blamed for causing a localized conflict with Serbia, but Germany is to blame for the full-scale war. Germany, in his opinion, used the conflict in the Balkans as an opportunity to launch the war; John Lowe correctly states that the crisis in the Balkans was the 'occasion', rather than the cause, of the First World War.To conclude, Germany has to accept some of

Was Hitler Primarily Responsible for the Outbreak of the Second World War

895 words - 4 pages other countries or the appeasement policy of Britain and France. The Second World War was nearly inevitable as long as he’s in power. However, although Hitler’s ambition and invasion to other country was a major cause that directly sparked off the Second World, he wasn’t solely responsible for the outbreak of the Second World War because it’s the Treaty of Versailles which provided favourable conditions for the rise of Hitler who came in strong

What Was the Most Important Cause of the First World War?

753 words - 4 pages appropriate section of Table 1 below. When you come across a passage that relates to a certain country, copy it to the appropriate section of Table 2. In 1900 the countries of Europe, together with the United States and Japan, dominated the world. The great powers were suspicious of each other, and made alliances with each other for safety. Germany was a fairly new country; it had only existed since 1870, and its neighbours were worried that if it

Evaluate the View That Present Day Lifestyle Is Largely Responsible for Increasing Levels of Obesity in the Uk. How and to What Extent Is Diet a Contributing Factor?

1151 words - 5 pages Evaluate the view that present day lifestyle is largely responsible for increasing levels of obesity in the UK. How and to what extent is diet a contributing factor? Obesity is one of the biggest health crisis’ affecting the UK at present. The UK has one of the highest obesity rates in the world, coming in only second next to America and number one in Europe. To say that the present day lifestyle is largely responsible for increasing the

To What Extent Do You Agree That a Revolution Happened in Germany at the End of World War I

671 words - 3 pages To what extent do you agree that a revolution happened in Germany at the end of World War I In Germany between 1918 and 1919 there were major political changes. They went from being an autocracy to a democracy. A revolution is defined as a forcible overthrow of a government or social order for a new system. It was called a revolution for numerous reasons. On October 29th 1919, a mutiny started to spread near Kiel because sailors refused

How Far Was the Russo-Japanese War Responsible for the Outbreak of the 1905 Revolution?

1794 words - 8 pages Russia. This therefore caused the Russo-Japanese War to be partly responsible for the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution. Huge military defeats were caused by the Russo-Japanese War, which highlighted the weakness of the military and caused national humiliation, thus contributing to the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution. An example of such a defeat was in January 1905 when the army had to surrender their Port Arthur naval base in Northern China, which

“to What Extent Was Rapid Economic Growth the Cause of Social Tensions in Wilhelmine Germany?”

1952 words - 8 pages “To what extent was rapid economic growth the cause of social tensions in Wilhelmine Germany?” In Wilhelmine Germany, an industrial revolution was taking place. By 1910, Germany had almost caught up with Britain on the production of industries such as coal and steel, with the rate of growth overwhelmingly surpassing that of the Britons. Germany was also home to new industries, like that of chemicals, which quickly saw 90% of the world’s hair

To What Extent Were Ideologies Important in the Bringing of the Cold War?

1597 words - 7 pages for tensions. We can see that even nationally tension rises, as an example the Bolshevik and Menshevik battle were international powers join the “war” in favour of the Mensheviks. The civil war lasted six years (1917-1923) and has per result famine and the victory of the Reds against the White internationals, the entry of International powers (in order to reduce the proliferation of communism) has accentuated the hatred of Russians against

To What Extent Did Breaking Code Jn-25 and Code Ultra Give Aid to the Allies in the Pacific and Atlantic Theatres of World War Two?

4794 words - 20 pages Extended Essay Group 3: History To what extent did breaking code JN-25 and code ULTRA give aid to the Allies in the Pacific and Atlantic theatres of World War Two? Word Count: 3746 Abstract: This extended essay has the subject of Code Breaking Intelligence. When studying the Second World War, the phrase ‘code breaking’ is not highlighted as a significant factor, so this investigation is to assess the contribution of code

How Far Do You Agree That the Most Important Cause of the Revolution in February 1917 Was the Great War

1334 words - 6 pages AS History How far do you agree that the most important cause of the revolution in February 1917 was the Great War? The February revolution which occurred in 1917 was the result of several causes, one of which being World War 1; in my opinion, it was the most important trigger. The Great War was the cause of Russia becoming financially dependent on Britain and France, decreasing the prestige the Tsar once held. Russia was unable to sustain its

To What Extent Were Colonial Pressures Primarily Responsible for British Withdrawal from West Africa in the Years (1957-65)?

1328 words - 6 pages To what extent were colonial pressures primarily responsible for British withdrawal from West Africa in the years (1957-65)? Colonial pressure was a significant reason accounting for British withdrawal but other factors including a domestic attitudinal and cold war dynamics also played a role; however economic considerations were the likely primary cause for British withdrawal from West Africa. If anything, it was the Suez Canal crisis of 1956

Related Papers

The Extent To Which The March 1917 Revolution In Russia Was Caused By World War One

1355 words - 6 pages the 2nd of March 1917. In conclusion, I believe that Russia was headed for a revolution and that WWI was just the touch to speed things up. People were fed up of the anarchy and of Tsarism, as you can see from all the riots etc. They realised that the Tsar was not fit to rule. As Orlando Figes said, “The Tsar never had political will. He never wanted to be Tsar in the first place.” So WWI just speeded up the process of failure, although many of the problems of the people where caused by the war. But the revolution of 1917, so the failure of Tsarism, was doomed to happen.

To What Extent Was The Us Responsible For The Collapse Of The Grand Alliance At The End Of Ww2?

1398 words - 6 pages To what extent was the United States responsible for the collapse of the Grand Alliance at the end of WWII?The role the United States played in the collapse of the Grand Alliance varies depending on who you ask; there are the Orthodox group who place the sole blame for the collapse on Soviet shoulders, or the Revisionists who believe that the Soviets actions were a legitimate response to the threat held by the USA's economic and strategic

To What Extent Was Adolf Hitler Personally Responsible For The Holocaust Between 1934 And 1942

4436 words - 18 pages To What extent was Adolf Hitler personally responsible for the Holocaust between 1934 and 1942. There can be no doubt that Hitler's behaviour throughout his political career, from the end of the First World War, until the end of the Second World War was characterised by radical anti-Semitism. In one way or another, Hitler wished to put an end to the existence of Jews with in the living space of the German people, and this objective was

"The Long March Was A Retreat That Changed The Destiny Of China" To What Extent Do You Agree With This Statement?

1169 words - 5 pages “The Long March was a retreat that changed the destiny of China” To what extent do you agree with this statement? The Long March was an epic journey across China conducted by the Red army in 1934. After the breakdown of the first United Front, Chiang Kai Shek launched an offensive which forced a retreat from Mao and the Red army. This retreat is believed to have lasted for over a year and covered 6000 miles. By the end of the march, of the