Work Improvement Method
School of Professional Studies
GBA603 – Organizational Theory
Dr. Steven Englehart
May 30, 2015
The origins of total quality management are uncertain, however, research has traced the theory of quality control back to the early 1920s when statistical analysis was used in conjunction with quality control. Walter A. Shewhart developed a statistical control chart in 1923 while working at Bell Telephone; although it wasn’t implemented until three years later at plant for Western Electric (Total Quality Management). The actual method of total quality management as a management approach was introduced in the 1950s. Originally the process of TQM utilized ...view middle of the document...
After the chief executive officers of major U.S. organizations to discuss the ongoing issue with quality, they came to the conclusion that continuous quality inspections and improvements can be an ongoing process at every level, this became known as Total Quality Management. A big step towards the recognition and awareness of quality management came in 1987 when the U.S. Congress put into legislation the Malcom Baldrige National Quality Improvement Act of 1987 (Total Quality). Initially it recognized manufacturers, service and small businesses but was expanded to include education and healthcare in 1999 followed by the addition of government and nonprofit organizations in 2007 (Total Quality).
The Baldrige Award, named after Reagans Secretary of Commerce, Malcom Baldrige, is judged on a specific criteria by a board of examiners. The Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence consists of leadership; strategic planning; customer and market focus; measurement, analysis and knowledge management; human resource focus, process management; and business/organization performance results (Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award). The U.S. Commerce Department’s National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) oversee the award and the American Society for Quality Control (ASQ) are the ones responsible for conducting the analysis and issuing it (Total Quality).
The modern version of total quality management has transformed from the original teachings of W. Edward Deming, Walter Shewhart and Joseph Juran and is now often referred to as business excellence. Although it still focuses on statistical quality control, it also includes things such as teamwork, communication and leadership (Kadian-Baumeyer, 2015). Due to the effectiveness of TQM, many models and theories have been adopted to fit a multitude of different types of organizations. The implementation of TQM in an organization is always led from top management because it requires the support of the entire organization, from the CEO to the individual employee. Because TQM is a decentralized control method it instills a lot of responsibility in the mid-level manager on down. In order for TQM to be successful, it needs to focus primarily on five principles: produce quality work the first time, focus on the customer, have a strategic approach to improvement, improve continuously and encourage mutual respect and teamwork (Kadian-Baumeyer, 2015).
Total quality management is an ideology and set of principles constructed by an organization in order to strive for continuous improvement across the organization (Kadian-Baumeyer, 2015). It measures the quality of a product and examines the quality of management. TQM will bring to surface most underling issues, inefficient processes and customer service problems. In order to improve quality,...