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Transformation Essay

2809 words - 12 pages



As a consequence of the Russian Revolution in 1917, the Soviet Union was created and there was a revolution across Europe. Most of the Communist states in Europe particularly the East, were established in the aftermath of the Second World War and by the early 1980s, communist governments ruled a vast number of the world's population, Tangiev 2007. Nonetheless, as a result of internal challenges economically, foreign entanglements, and demands for change, the Soviet Union itself was ever more unstable. In the late 1980s, Eastern Europe grew increasingly unstable as people demanded for a revolution and in 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed. The founders of the ...view middle of the document...

A reduction of employment and work relations in the transition of Russia and Belarus was significant with emphasis on gender (UNICEF 1999). According to ILO, the early years of transition had an uneven percentage of job loss between female (13%) and male (9%) employees. In the transition process, do loans from international development agencies like World Bank and the IMF weaken national capacity? Are the administrators of these loans held accountable? In Belarus for instance, the Soviet-type of statistical methodology which determines GDP in terms of general industrial output is in use, this in turn does not give a true and fair view of the growth affairs of the state, still loans are given. This paper gives account with detail of both post communist states as they emancipate from their common negative backgrounds in employee relations, centralised authority in labour process (Meurs 1998), ineffective consultation of workers and gender inequality (Pine 1996) into an internationally competitive market economy effective and efficient for long-term social, political and economic development.

The most fundamental similarity according to Kuzio (2001) is that many post communist states took over weak states and institutions. As a result of transition, state-owned enterprises in these states began to avoid social functions as they faced new demands for profitability. These now-privatized operations came under pressure to turn a profit, which meant that they could no longer maintain large, underutilized work forces and social assets that did not help the bottom line. Whereas under communism there had been a rationale for providing housing to employees, under market capitalism workers could find somewhere to live on their own. Tying up capital in unprofitable housing projects suddenly stopped making business sense, (Orenstein 2008).

Consequently, the introduction of liberal economic policies in early 1990s caused a decline in GDP of both countries this in turn caused a reduction in investment and employment (Dunford 1998). From the perspective of economic collapse, labour markets and administration of work in these states have been overhauled and continue to undergo changes at different rates (Pollert 1999). In Russia, unofficial employment and job insecurity interwoven with a weakened employee representation was constant. Rainnie 1999, depicted the transition as one from a low work intensity, illegal income generating activities in order to combat poverty. The workers in Belarus are underemployed and weakened employee representation is observed frequently in Belarus, as result of this, standards in workers' rights and areas of social responsibility are disregarded.

The economic reforms in particular are aimed at enabling the market mechanism play a dominant role so that decisions could be maximized by independent entrepreneurs. Belarus a post communist state in Europe is yet to imbibe the true principles of democratic and free...

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