Transforming gender relations in Ghana agenda will remain so for some time to come. In spite of decades of gender equity activism and public efforts which had been undertaken in the last three decades within the ambit of electoral policies, the transformation process was stalled with many challenges.
In the gender equality intervention, especially following the Beijing declaration of 1995, the agenda has been pursued in some societies as if it is only women’s business. Initially, some gender equality activities were undertaken as if it was a battle between women and men. In certain instances some men thought that promotion of gender equality or women’s ...view middle of the document...
GENDER TERMS, CONCEPTS AND STRATEGIES
Different terms, concepts and strategies have emerged in the process of pushing the gender agenda. This chapter discusses some of the gender concepts which have been used over the years to address gender inequalities in society. Some of these concepts include gender, gender equality, gender equity and women’s empowerment.
To start with is the term gender. Money et al. (1955) in money (1973)claims that he is the first person to define gender from the role perspective as all those things that person say or does to disclose himself or herself as having the status of boy or man, girl or woman, respectively. Sometimes it is hard to understand exactly what is meant by the term gender and most critically how it differs from the closely related term sex. Sex refer to biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women while gender implies the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women.
Secondly, gender role is another term associated with gender. An explanation of gender roles is a way that helps the understanding of gender. One major difference between men and women is the different roles they play which is termed gender roles. Gender roles have been explained as a set of perceived behavioral norms associated particularly with males or females in a given social group. Gender roles are learned through socialization processes and therefore not fixed so it could be changeable.
Gender needs is the third one and are required for bridging the gender gap. Gender gap could be explained as the difference between development of opportunities for males and females.
Gender inequality is the fourth. “No society treats its women as well as its men” (UNPP 1997:3J9 In Wach & Reeven 2000). The author notes further that whoever said men and women are equal must be blind. Women have always taken back sit in society. There seen to be one set of standard s that apply to men, and another set of standards that apply to women. Gender inequality is explained as the unequal and biased treatment between two sexes.
Gender equality is the fifth gender term and is important as well. A distinction is often made between gender equality and gender equity. Gender equality refers to elimination of those differences which ascribe lower value to women choice and perpetuate unequal power and resources. It refers to those areas where men’s choices and access to power and resource are more limited. Gender equity on the other hand implies the condition of fairness and equality of opportunity whereby gender is no longer a basis for discrimination and inequality between people.
Finally we have gender mainstreaming. A background to the adoption of the gender mainstreaming strategy by the United Nations Office of the special advisor on gender issues and advancement of women (Osagi 2001) notes that initial effort for promoting...