Tsarism in Russia
Although the 1905 Revolution did not bring Tsarism to its demise, it
had important consequences on Tsarism. It illuminates the problems of
Russian society and exposed the government's weaknesses. Nevertheless,
the Tsar managed to suppress his opponents and appeased the masses,
saving his regimes from collapse. However, this security was only
temporarily as the root of Russia's problems were not solved and WWI
in 1914 was the last straw for the decaying regime. Hence, I agree
with the statement to a large extent.
The inherent problems in Russian society were never dealt with
properly by the Tsar. The peasants suffered from the ...view middle of the document...
By the October Manifesto, the Tsar allowed the formation of an elected
legislative assembly, the Duma. Technically, this would mean that the
Tsar had to share his autocratic power with his people and by inviting
opposition into the government, he may be endangering his status.
However, this was not the case. Ironically, it helped strengthened the
Tsar's power. The forming of the Duma appeased the liberals and
satisfied their appetite for reforms, hence they are willing to
cooperate with the Tsar rather than confront Tsarism directly. In
addition, the Duma did not reduce the Tsar's power. Not only did the
Duma had limited powers to begin with, it was subjected to the whims
and fancy if the Tsar. The Tsar could dissolve the Duma should he not
like their proposals and they could only give suggestions to the Tsar.
The Fundamental Laws passed in April 1906 decreed theta the Tsar had
absolute power and the last say in all matters, hence, the Tsar had
not lose any of his power and with his absolute authority, he could do
all that he can to secure his rule.
The Tsar bought over the peasants by the November Manifesto in which
he pledged to progressively reduce and then abolish the mortgage
repayments of their lands. Economic reforms were carried out by
Stolypin to try and improve the peasants' living standards. This
helped to appease the peasants and their anger towards the Tsar slowly
died down. By 1915, nearly 50% of the peasantry enjoyed hereditary
ownership of their land, as compared to lower than 20% in the past.
The drop in the number of land seizures by the peasants and the
decline in the general lawlessness in the countryside are proof that
the peasants were generally more satisfied with the Tsar now.
The rest of the Tsar's opponents that were still not won over were
suppressed I the Tsar's efforts to further consolidate his position.
Having won over the peasants and the liberals, the government was left
with the opposition of the workers. The army was used to crush the
soviets. In December 1906, an insurrection in Moscow was crushed by
the army, taking about 1200 rebel lifes. Mutinous veterans were
suppressed along the route of the Trans-Siberian Railway. Field
court-martial was used to deal with terrorists and rural
troublemakers. Pressure was added upon the press and the unions to
attack the bases of radical politics. In 1908, the number of political
assassinations had dropped to 365, showing the Tsar had effectively
curbed his opponents and in doing so, securing his power.
Hence, despite its unpopularity, the Tsar had managed to survive the
1905 Revolution. The liberals and peasants were willing to cooperate
with government while other opponents were suppressed. The power of
the Tsar was still intent and he still commanded the loyalty of the
army which formed a main...