Tuskagee Experiment Essay

630 words - 3 pages

In 1932, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) initiated an experiment in Macon County, Alabama, to determine the syphilis outbreak in African Americans. The intent of the experiments known as the Tuskegee Experiments was to figure out and study the outbreak of syphilis within black males, females, and children. Within the experiment, there were 600 people, in which 399 people, part of the experimental group, who had the disease and another 201 who did not. The 201 were there for a control group to see what the treatments, if any were to be given, would affect a healthy human being.
In order to agree that studies and exams for be given, consent must be written or given. Unfortunately, seeming most of the clients were illiterate, meaning they could not read and/or write, it was passed off as an informal consent. The consent agreed that the enrolled would receive meals of treatment days, rides to and ...view middle of the document...

The doctors feared that if the clients did not receive any treatment, they would quit the study. In the end result, about 30 percent of the original experiment group dies due to directly from syphilitic lesions of the either cardiovascular or the central nervous system.
Syphilis is a chronic bacterial disease that is contracted chiefly by infection during sexual intercourse, but also congenitally by infection of a developing fetus. This explains why and how some women and children were diagnosed with the disease. Early/primary stage would develop sores, around either the genitals or by the mouth area. Early stage can be treated immediately but untreated, can heal without scaring after a few months. If the infection isn't treated, it may then progress to a stage characterized by severe problems with the heart, brain, and nerves that can result in paralysis, blindness, dementia, deafness, impotence, and even death if it's not treated.
A huge cure for syphilis would have been penicillin, but do to rules and laws of the USPHS, it was not a fully tested treatment result for the disease. The experiments ended on July 25, 1972, when Jean Heller of the Associated Press broke the story that appeared simultaneously both in New York and Washington, that there had been a 40-year nontherapeutic experiment called "a study" on the effects of untreated syphilis on Black men in the rural south. It was considered unethical that this could happen underneath the radar of the public knowledge for so long. In October, the Assistant Secretary for Health and Scientific Affairs officially declared a stop and the decease of the Tuskegee Experiments. As part of the class-action suit settlement, the U.S. government promised to provide a range of free services to the survivors of the study, their wives, widows, and children. All living participants became immediately entitled to free medical and burial services. In 1997, President Bill Clinton formally apologized and held a ceremony in the honor of the experiment subjects, only 5 out of 8 remaining showed up.

Other Essays Like Tuskagee Experiment

The French And Indian War: The "Real" First World War

1955 words - 8 pages The Seven Years War, or more commonly referred to as “The French and Indian War”, has been called the true First World War. In this book The French and Indian War: Deciding the Fate of North America, the author and historian Walter R. Borneman paints a detailed and elaborate picture that justifies the claim of it being the first true war of global proportions. If ever there truly was a climax to the never ending feud of the European powers

Is The Use Of Animals In Medical Research A Necessary Measure?

1513 words - 7 pages experiment cannot be accurately extrapolated to humans. The skin irritant test involves placing a chemical on a shaved patch of skin and using another shaved patch as the control. It is used to evaluate the potential of a substance to cause irreversible damage to the skin (“Types of”). Due to the variety of responses to the chemicals among different species of animals, it is extremely difficult to conclude that the same reaction will occur on

Education And The Evolving Job Market

2363 words - 10 pages The lives of students today are changing. They are preparing for lives and jobs that have never before existed. If teachers hope to have a significant and worthwhile impact on these quickly changing lives, they must change the way they think, prepare, and instruct our future generations. Children cannot afford to have teachers who remain stagnant in their methods and ideals. Students crave instructors that are willing to allow them to tap

Young And Relentless

1737 words - 7 pages There are numerous influences that can be responsible of teenager’s behaviors and attitude as they develop. One factor that is important to these behaviors is parental figures being over involved or uninvolved in their children’s lives. Many of these effects include illegal substance abuse, rising sexual activity, underage alcohol consumption, and tobacco use. Studies show parental participation plays a key role in the characteristics developed

The Natural Law Theory

1231 words - 5 pages Obeying by the natural law theory is the only true and moral way to live life; especially a life lived in God’s image. God’s presence is a guiding factor to obtaining a moral and virtuous life, which can only be obtained by following the natural law theory. God created a set of laws as a supreme guide for humans to live life, like any law these laws were created to ensure wellbeing for everyone. The laws he created are the civil law, the natural

Resolved: Presidential Signing Statements Threaten To Undermine The Rule Of Law And The Separation Of Powers

1811 words - 8 pages The subject of signing statements has created much debate among the houses of Congress, government officials, and the public alike. These signing statements fall under the categories of constitutional and legislative history signing statements. Constitutional signing statements are those in which the president deems certain provisions of the legislation as unconstitutional, therefore they should not be enforced (Bradley & Posner, 2006

Oppressive Systems Of Government In Egypt And Animal Farm

1529 words - 7 pages As in Egypt, Orwell demonstrates through his allegorical novel “Animal Farm” that leaders are able to establish and maintain power over a people, and in turn create an oppressive and corrupt government system. Orwell shows the significant difference in the education and levels of knowledge in the animals, and how the government takes advantage of this difference. The split between the levels of intelligence is portrayed in the first chapter when

The Pathway To Psychosis

1415 words - 6 pages “How all occasions do inform against me” is a line from act IIII, scene IIII of William Shakespeare’s Hamlet. This line, spoken by Hamlet, expresses his emotional state as he is currently overwhelmed by the death of his father, the king of Denmark, and the situation surrounding it. After Hamlet learns of his father’s death he finds out that his mother has married Claudius, Hamlet’s uncle. On top of all of that, Hamlet soon after

Rated “M” For “More Censorship Not Needed”

1241 words - 5 pages Since the moment video games became a commercial success there have been people who have pushed for unfair amounts of censorship to be placed upon the content of the games and its availability to children. These groups push for increased regulations on content but there is already an appointed group to handle this issue, the ESRB. Even though there has been an increase in mature content in the video game industry, increased censorship is not

Four Components Of A Legally Astute Social Media Marketing Manager

1914 words - 8 pages With the advances in technology constantly changing companies have to find better ways to market their products to consumers. The explosion of Facebook has given companies a way to market products to consumers. Examine how a legally astute manager can use social media to his advantage. Review different forms of dispute resolution and determine which one works the best. What is the best course of action, the government can use to

Obama's Values

1217 words - 5 pages As individuals, we don’t tend to take action unless it’s for self-interest; however, in Dreams from My Father, Obama spends three years, after college, as a community organizer in Chicago. Obama goes through tribulations, disappointments, and even complete failures organizing meaningful events, decisive meetings, and humble gatherings but he keeps working toward achieving any possible change in the community. Even though results give him every

Related Papers

The Separation Of Capital Ownership And Control

1577 words - 7 pages The argument of whether the separation of capital ownership and control is an efficient form of organization has constantly been a controversial issue. The criticism whether the controllers’ act is in the best interest of the owners’ wills never end as long as hired managers operate management. As the number of public companies has been increasing over the course of this century, meanwhile the American style of contact based corporation has

The Versatility And Flexibility Of Oled's

1014 words - 5 pages In April 1, 2002, organic light emitting diodes gain rise in the scientific community with their published, more practical form at Ames Laboratory. “Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory, in collaboration with scientists at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, have developed and demonstrated a novel, fluorescence-based chemical sensor that is more compact, versatile and less expensive than existing technology of its

Comparing The Moral Virtues Of Antony And Julian The Apostate

1103 words - 5 pages Roman emperor Julian the Apostate and Christian leader Antony both exhibited many qualities of character during their existence. Both of them led very distinctive lives although shared several ethical values. Book 25 of “The Later Roman Empire” and the book “Early Christian Lives” show concrete evidence of this. In the following essay, I will argue how both leaders’ lives were devoted to their religious beliefs and their mutual cardinal virtues

Living In A Cashless Society Essay

1637 words - 7 pages Money in a traditional sense no longer exists. Money is becoming much of a concept than a physical material, and most ordinary bitter have not see the reality of the switch. People today are using credit and debit cards on a regular basis and in everyday situations such as meal purchased at fast food, highway tolls, clothing, groceries, gas stations, etc. all of these means of systems could be regarded as a cashless society or world. The question