Types of Child Labour
Children and young people work in a wide variety of different areas. These include:
Providing care within a family, for example to a sick adult relative.
Domestic work - This may be paid or unpaid and provided wither to a relative or non-relative. This is sometimes referred to as a hidden form of child labour. This is because it is not easily visible and is rarely covered by campaigns on child labour. Most of the children and young people involved in domestic work are girls.
Different forms of agriculture - including both commercial and subsistence farming.
Selling items on the street .
Transportation of goods.
Work in warehouses and factories.
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Working children may experience physical harm in a number of ways. These include:
- Increased risk of accidents - children and young people often work in unregulated environments where little attention is paid to safety.
- Assault - working children often experience violence in the workplace from adult staff and managers. Children and young people working in the street are also at risk of physical violence from police officers and other authority figures.
- Violent theft - this is also a risk faced by street vendors.
- Risk of illness from poor hygiene and exposure to bad weather.
- Harmful effects of pesticides.
Sexual abuse . This includes rape. Effects include unwanted pregnancy, sexually-transmitted infections and HIV infection.
Abuse and exploitation . These include prostitution, slavery, trafficking, debt bondage and forced labour.
In general, girls are more vulnerable to the harmful effects of child labour than boys.
Responses to Child Labour
Many of the responses to child labour have focused on introducing laws to make child labour illegal. Sanctions have then sometimes been applied to companies which break those laws. However, there are problems with this approach. These problems include:
Failing to clearly distinguish between harmful and non-harmful forms of child labour.
Failing to recognise the benefits to children and their families of working. These benefits include:
- The financial contribution made by the child to individual and family livelihoods. These can be essential for survival.