Types of soils
Soils in India : Soil is the uppermost layer of the earth’s crust. Soil is the medium in which plants grow and thus it supports the lives on earth.
How soils are formed?
Soil is the thin layer of loose mixture of small rock parcks are also worn away by the agents of erosion like river, wind, sea and glacier. The sediments and tiny rock particles are then deposited by agents of erosion. The accumulation of such sediments over the age’s forms soil shed their leaves which decay to form the topmost layer of soil called “humus”.
India is primarily an agricultural country. The success of agriculture depends upon the fertility of soil. The soils of India are classified ...view middle of the document...
- Rich in lime and iron, magnesia and alumina
- Also contain potash
- Known as black cotton soils.
- Dark in colour, suitable for cotton cultivation is residual soils, i.e. they are formed at the place of their origin over the underlying rocks.
- Are formed in situ, i.e. formed where they are found. Therefore, they are essentially formed by weathering of Deccan trap.
- Spread over an area of 5.4 sq. km., i.e. 16.6% of the total land area of the country.
- Fine textured and clayey in nature.
- Has high quality of lime, iron, magnesium, and Generally poor percentage of phosphorous, nitrogen and organic matter.
- Black in colour as it is formed from weathered lava rocks.
- Soil’s colour also varies from black to chestnut brown.
- Very clayey and therefore highly retentive of water. Because of high clay content, these soils expand when wet and become difficult to plough.
- Soil is very fertile in most of places.
- Poor in nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and organic matter and rich in potash and lime.
- Needs irrigation support for cultivation.
- Contains soluble salts in small quantities.
- Cultivation is done with the help of fertilizers
- Suited for dry farming as it does not require much moisture.
- Cotton cultivationSuitable for growing cereals, rice, wheat, jowar, oilseeds, citrus fruits and vegetables, tobacco and sugarcane.
- Their moisture-retentiveness makes them suitable for dry farming.
Black soil (summary)
Black soil is made from lava – solidified rocks and is also called ‘black cotton soil’ or ‘regur soil’. The black colour of regur soil is due to its iron content, deriving from pultonic lava materials. Mainly found in the Deccan regions which the major part of Maharastra, Gujrat and parts of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Cotton is most important crop.
These soils are found in Chota Nagpur Plateau, Telangana, Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Periphery areas of Deccan Plateau. These soils have been formed due to decomposing of underlying igneous rocks under heavy rainfall. These are suitable for cultivation millets, pulses. Lin – seed, tobacco etc. These soils are poor in lime, nitrogen and humus.
Red soils are reddish in colour due to the presence of iron. This type of soil is found in south India as well as in the chota Nagpur pleatu. Formed due to weathering of ancient crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
- Parent rocks are acid granites and gneisses.
- Occupy an wide area of about 3.5 lake sq. km- 10.6% of the total land area of the country.
- These are transported type soils.
- Coarsest in the upper section of the valley, medium in the middle and finest in the delta region.
- Are mostly light to dark colour depending on new or alluvium.
- Rich in potash and become fertile...