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Types Of Meaning Essay

4580 words - 19 pages

13. Types of meaning-The basic notions on which the essence of meaning is based are: 1. L/ge is a semiotic system of a specific kindthe most complex and universal among all existing sign system in society.The most important function of all l/ge is the communicative function. 2. L/ge that exists in texts created in the process of communication. 3. L/ge elements are two sided formations in which there is the plain of expression or form and the plain of content meaning and they are interrelated. The referent is the connection between the linguistic sign and the object from the real world.The relation between the sing and tits referential forms is the so called referential meaning. The referent ...view middle of the document...

Different types of meaning play different roles in text belonging to different genres. Referential meaning is characteristic for scientific texts while in fiction what matter is pragmatic meaning. Referential meaning is often sacrified in poetic texts for the sake of preserving the pragmatic meaning. RENDERING OF REFERENTIAL MEANINGSemantic equivalence of linguistic items can be of three types: fully equivalent, partially equivalent, lack of equivalence. Cases of full equivalencewhen words have one lexical meaning (proper and geographical names RussiaРусия), scientific and technical terms, some other groups of word similar to the above mentioned like names of months, dates, days of the week, numerals. Not all words belonging to these groups have only one meaning- power has two equivalents in Bulgarian сила, мощ. The names of rare animals are fully equivalent.

Partial equivalencea word in one l/ge corresponds to more than one word in other l/ge- has more than one semantic equivalents (characterхарактер, отличителна черта). Cases of nondifferentiality or indeterminacy of meaning- a word in a l/ge expressing a wider concept can correspond to two or several words in other l/ge each of which are narrower and more determined, refer to a more limited class of objects (ръкаhand, arm; coldстуд, настинка). The conclusion is that one l/ge can express difference between certain concepts while other l/ges don’t find it necessary to express the difference. The colours differ in a number of different l/ges or the parts of the day and night (денонощие- 24 hours, day). Although the words in the two l/ges are equivalent sometimes they can be translated in a different way. The word чаша is rendered differently in English- gobbler, mug, glass, cup.

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Cases of lack of equivalenceproper names, geographical names, names of institution, newspapers, magazines, realia (цървули, боза, drugstore). These cases are rendered differently: 1.the first type of rendering is translation, transliteration, transcription. In transliteration the words are rendered with the help of the graphical means of different alphabets. In transcription it is sound that is rendered. Transliteration is often used in contemporary fiction. 2. Calquing (калки)parts of the words are rendered by their direct lexical equivalents (house of cultureдом на културата). 3. Descriptive translationalthough this type is not very economical sometimes it is necessary to use it (floorerозадачаващ, сайващ въпрос, въпрос на който се отговаря трудно). 4. Close/analogus translation (drugstoreаптека). 5. Transformational translation (glimpse-бърз поглед). RENDERING OF

PRAGMATIC MEANINGpragmatic meaning is connected with the relation between sounds and people, events, processes they refer to. It can also refer to people’s experience or to the...

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