P1: explain the principal sociological perspectives.
In sociology there are six main principal perspectives and these are Functionalism, Marxism, Feminism, Interactionism, Postmodernism, Collectivism and New Right.
In 1951, Talcott Parsons introduced the Functionalist view and this studies the social structure as a whole of how it functions as well as how each social structure is crucial in the interests of society. Functionalism believes that humans and the society have basic needs, institutions and governments might be responsible to meet the required needs of people also the functionalist may consider that they are different kinds of sources that could limit the ...view middle of the document...
The Marxist view is based on the conflicts and interests of the society, it also strongly emphasises on the importance of conflict in societies and communities. They also believe that economics are the bases of progressing and social life this can be achieved by struggling through social classes, the change of social class is caused by the class of struggle. The two classes that Marx discussed about were the Bourgeoisie and Proletariat. The Bourgeoisie class is a small powerful group who may have owned factories or own companies whereas the Proletariat is a poorer group of workers. The way a Marxists thinks is based on the financial structures and systems as well as social class meaning that these factors are vital in the Marxist view. However there are several positives and benefits that may link to the main social institutions which highlight the importance of economics within society. Most theorists believe that this philosophy enlightens individuals to some freedom which emphasis on conflict. However the Marxism theory may not be realistic as not every society is based on conflicts. There are some criticisms that the Marxist view believes in for example that they may state saying a person’s behaviour reflects and effects on the socialisation progress also some writers suggest that the Marxist model may focus more on the economy as the institution that as it is the focal point of the society but not emphasising to other institutions as religion, family, culture and race which moulds the behaviour of the individual.
Feminism is based on the social experiences from a women’s point of view. In basic terms feminism looks at society fro, a viewpoint of males however making females visible within the society. Feminism has two main bases of roles which are, redressing the balance and study society from a female point of view and to explore women’s lives which often neglected by sociological studies. Pamela Abbott and Claire Wallace (1997) studied the feminism perspective including the concerns and criticisms of malestream sociology. They suggested and argued that the male dominance has produced prejudiced descriptions and analysis meaning people do not focus on the issues that affect women. There are different categories of feminism which study specific aspects of women in the society this includes Liberal feminism, Radical feminism and Marxist feminism.
Liberal feminism looks at the view of legal restrictions of women in the society. Some female members of the liberal feminism believe that changing attitudes and legislations there will be more equality and diversity in society. Liberal feminists consider that if they are improvements this will be resulted in the acts of legislations and policies.
Radical feminism is a theory that focuses on the oppressive nature of patriarchy. Btec National Health and Social Care book (2007) defines Patriarchy as a form of society in which men may be seen as...