Unit 2 Lecture Study Guide
1) What are the parts of an atom? Where are the subatomic particles found? The central nucleus and the electron shell or electron cloud. Protons, neutrons and electrons are subatomic particles. Protons and neutrons are both found inside the nucleus of an atom whereas the electrons are found on the electron cloud or electron shell.
2) How does the Atomic Mass # differ from the Atomic #?
The atomic mass number is the total number of protons in the nucleus. The atomic number is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Therefore the difference is that the mass number includes neutrons and the atomic number does not.
3) What is an ...view middle of the document...
Proteins, Carbohydrates, Nucleic acids and lipids.
Describe each one, and provide an example.
Proteins: They are very complicated molecules made up of amino acids. The 20 amino acids can be arranged in any order to make a polypeptide made up of thousands of amino acids. Their potential for variety is extraordinary. This variety allows proteins to function as extremely specific enzymes that function in a cell's metabolism. Proteins make up about one-half of your body's non-water mass. Ex. Amino acid
Carbohydrates: Simply put, they are "sugars". They are important metabolically. Sugars are the major energy storage molecules for living organisms. Complex carbohydrates are made by combining more and more simple sugars. Ex. Glucose
Nucleic acids: Measured by mass, they are the smallest group of organic chemicals in your body. However, these large polymers are the largest single molecules in the body. DNA and RNA together store and transfer genetic information. The diagram at the top of this page is a very small segment of the structural formula for one DNA molecule. Ex. Thymine
Lipids: Lipids are characterized by their solubility in organic solvents rather than in water. Unlike proteins and nucleic acids, lipids do not necessarily form polymers. In general, lipids can be found in cell membranes and in fats. Ex. cholesterol
What are the “building blocks” of each molecule? For example, protein = Amino Acid.
Carbohydrates- monosaccharides, disaccharides, and complex carbohydrates
Proteins- Amino acids, enzymes, substrate, catalyst
Nucleic Acids- DNA and RNA
Lipids- cell membranes, fats, steroids, vitamins
10) There are 4 levels of protein structure. What are the levels? How do the levels of a protein differ in structure and function?
Primary- the unique sequence of amino acids in the protein. All proteins have a special sequence of amino acids; the sequence is derived from the cell’s DNA.
Secondary- the coiling or bending of the polypeptide into sheets is referred to the proteins secondary structure. Alpha helix or a beta pleated sheet is the basic forms of this level. They can exist separately or jointly in a protein.
Tertiary- The folding back of a molecule upon itself and held together by disulfide bridges and hydrogen bonds. This adds to the proteins stability.
Quaternary- Complex structure formed by the interaction of 2 or more polypeptide chains.
11) Describe the structure of...