Unit 4222-256 Understand the impact of Acquired Brain Injury on Individuals
1.1. Acquired Brain Injury is any damage to the brain that occurs after birth.
1.2 Possible causes of Acquired Brain Injury are:-
· alcohol or drugs
· disease such as AIDS, Alzheimers, cancer, multiple sclerosis or Parkinsons disease
· lack of oxygen caused anoxic brain injury (for e.g. injury caused by near drowning)
· Physical injury such as impact (or blow) to the head, which may occur in vehicle or sporting accidents, fights or falls
· stroke - when a blood vessel inside the brain breaks or is blocked destroying local brain tissue
2.1 The initial effects of Acquired Brain Injury are:-
· loss of ...view middle of the document...
· epilepsy - brain injury can make a person prone to epileptic seizures or ‘fits’.
· spasticity - limbs may be stiff or weak and the range of movement limited. Often one side of the body is affected more than the other, depending on the area of brain that is damaged. This is known as hemiplegia.
· weakness or paralysis - often affects one side of the body than the other. This could mean that help is needed during personal care and when getting dressed or undressed. Muscle weakness may affect continence and continence aids may be needed.
· Ataxia - is irregular uncontrolled movement or tremor affecting the coordination of movements. The person’s hands may be shaky or clumsy and handwriting may be difficult or impossible.
· Hormonal imbalances - insufficient or increased release of one or more hormones which causes disruption of the body’s ability to maintain a stable internal environment (homeostasis).
· Problems with memory - particularly short-term memory are common after brain injury.
· Reduced initiation and problems with motivation - these problems may also be a symptom of depression.
· reduced concentration span - completing tasks can be a problem and the task may be abandoned before reaching the end.
· Reduced speed of information processing - people can take longer to think things through or work out what has been said to them.
· Reduced problem solving ability.
· Repetition or ‘perseveration’ - the person may be unable to move on to another topic in the same conversation and they may return to the same topic over and over again.
· Impaired reasoning - may affect a person’s ability to think logically, to understand rules or follow discussions.
· Impaired judgement - can cause difficulties in accurately perceiving and interpreting one’s own and other people’s behaviour and feelings.
· Lack of insight - the person may have an unrealistic view of themselves and others.
· Language loss (aphasia) - this may be ‘receptive’ or ‘expressive’.
· Impairments in visual-perceptual skills - the person may have difficulty in making sense out of ordinary pictures and shapes.
Emotional and Behavioural Effects
· Loss of confidence - This is very common after brain injury and a person can need a lot of encouragement and reassurance.
· Mood swings or ‘emotional lability’ - the person may have a tendency to laugh or cry very easily.
· Depression and sense of loss - are very common. Depression may be caused by the injury to the areas of the brain that control emotion, but can also be associated with the person gaining an insight into the effects of their injury.
· Anxiety - life has been changed forever in a matter of seconds and the future can look frightening.
· Frustration and anger - frustration can build up quickly.
· Abusive or obscene language - this may be spontaneous and uncontrollable.
· Disinhibition - loss of control over social behaviour so that the person may behave in an over-familiar manner, they...