Urban Water Cycles: Egypt Essay

5735 words - 23 pages

HafenCity University Resource Efficiency in Architecture and Planning Urban Water Cycles
Prof. Wolfgang Dickhaut

Urban Water Cycles in Egypt
Current situation and project examples

By: Ismail Khater
Matrikel-Nr.: 3023136 Summer Semester – 2011

Abstract
Water scarcity is one of the utmost issues and challenges of the 21st century. It is not only the quantity aspect causing the main problems, but furthermore the quality, distribution and the wasteful management. Estimated climate change, population growth and economic developments further strain available water sources. As the Middle East and North Africa is a region of great interest to me, this paper presents an overall ...view middle of the document...

........................ 2 FIGURE 2: EGYPT’S GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION ..................... 3 FIGURE 3: ANNUAL MEAN TEMPERATURES IN °C FOR CAIRO ... 3 FIGURE 4: RAINFALL PATTERNS OVER EGYPT IN MM .............. 4 FIGURE 5: THE CLIMATIC DISTRICTS OF EGYPT ...................... 4 FIGURE 6: LOCATION OF MAIN AQUIFER SYSTEMS ................. 5 FIGURE 7: TOPOGRAPHY OF EGYPT ................................... 5 FIGURE 8: THE NILE, ITS BRANCHES AND MAIN HYDRAULIC INFRASTRUCTURE ................................................. 6 FIGURE 9: HYDROGEOLOGICAL MAP FOR THE NILE BASIN ...... 7 FIGURE 10: THE NILE BASIN ............................................ 7 FIGURE 11: EFFICIENCY INDICATOR OF EGYPT’S NILE WATER ... 8 FIGURE 12: HYDROGEOLOGICAL CROSS SECTION OF NILE BANK FILTRATION ......................................................... 8 FIGURE 13: FLOW RATE IN THE RIVER NILE (DOWNSTREAM OF THE ASWAN DAM) [10] ........................................ 9 FIGURE 14: WATER RESOURCES [21] ................................ 9 FIGURE 15: WATER DEMAND FOR DIFFERENT SECTORS ........ 10 FIGURE 16: RIVER NILE WATER QUALITY [21] .................. 12 FIGURE 17: WATER CHALLENGES SUMMARY [1]................. 13 FIGURE 18: WASTEWATER TREATED IN GABAL EL ASFAR [22] 14 FIGURE 19: LOCATION MAP & AERIAL VIEW...................... 15 FIGURE 20: GABAL EL ASFAR WWTP PROCESS DIAGRAM [16] ..................................................................... 15 FIGURE 21: WATER HARVESTING FOR FARMING, MATRUH [23] ..................................................................... 16 FIGURE 22: CISTERN [18]............................................. 16 FIGURE 23: SAND STORAGE DAM [18] ............................ 16 FIGURE 24: THE “OBJECTIVE TREE” FOR ADDRESSING WATER QUALITY DETERIORATION ..................................... 17 FIGURE 25: PROBLEM TREE SUMMARY OF THE EFFECTS AND CAUSES OF WATER QUALITY DEGRADATION............... 18 1

1. Introduction
Water is the most extensive matter on earth. It is the source of life and is essential for drinking, food production, goods production and many other things. Regardless of these facts, humanity constantly threatens water availability and quality. There are numerous actions causing water degradation, most known are rapid industrialization and urbanization. Managing water in the past has been done by means of what is called “end of pipe” treatment, which focuses on what to do with the wastewater, which has been proven to be costly and unsustainable [1]. While constant improvements have been done in regards to that system, a new era of prevention and decentralized treatment is vital to meet the demands and quality of the 21st century population and standards. Managing our waters intelligently is therefore fundamental to solving the global socio-economic and environmental issues that face humanity. [2]

Figure 1: water scarcity in the world

This paper is written in context of the course “urban water cycles” of the master...

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