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Viruses, Rabies Essay

935 words - 4 pages

Rabies
 
Epidemiology
 
 

  Rabies
 causes
 about
 55,000
 human
 deaths
 annually
 worldwide,
 95%
 of
 human
  deaths
 due
 to
 rabies
 occur
 in
 Asia
 and
 Africa.
 Roughly
 97%
 of
 human
 rabies
  cases
 result
 from
 dog
 bites.
 Mandatory
 vaccination
 of
 animals
 is
 less
 effective
  in
 rural
 areas
 so
 oral
 vaccines
 can
 be
 safely
 distributed
 in
 baits,
 a
 practice
 that
  has
 successfully
 reduced
 rabies
 in
 rural
 areas
 of
 Canada,
 France
 and
 USA.
 In
  the ...view middle of the document...

  From
 the
 point
 of
 entry,
 the
 virus
 is
 neurotropic
 (a
 virus
 that
  is
 capable
 of
 infecting
 nerve
 cells),
 traveling
 quickly
 along
 the
  neural
 pathways
 into
 the
 central
 nervous
 system,
 and
 then
  to
 other
 organs.
 The
 salivary
 glands
 receive
 high
  concentrations
 of
 the
 virus,
 allowing
 for
 further
  transmission.
 The
 virus
 also
 has
 an
 incubation
 period,
 which
  is
 the
 time
 it
 takes
 for
 symptoms
 to
 develop
 after
 a
 person
 is
  infected
 with
 the
 virus.
 The
 incubation
 period
 for
 rabies
 is
 
  usually
 2-­‐12
 weeks,
 although
 it
 can
 be
 as
 short
 as
 four
 days
  (however
 there
 is
 one
 documented
 case
 of
 6
 years).
 
 The
  closer
 the
 site
 of
 infection
 is
 to
 your
 brain,
 the
 shorter
 the
  incubation
 period.
 The
 incubation
 period
 is
 very
 important,
  as
 it
 is
 the
 only
 time
 that
 the
 rabies
 can
 be
 cured.
 

Spread
 
All
 species
 of
 mammals
 are
 susceptible
 to
 rabies
 virus
 infection,
 but
 only
 a
 few
  species
 are
 important
 as
 key
 carriers
 of
 the
 disease.
 Any
 warm-­‐blooded
 

animal,
 including
 humans,
 may
 become
 infected
 with
 the
 rabies
 virus
 and
  develop
 symptoms,
 although
 birds
 have
 only
 been
 known
 to
 be
 infected
 in
  controlled
 experiments.
 Infected
 bats,
 monkeys,
 raccoons,
 foxes,
 skunks,
  cows,
 wolves,
 dogs
 and
 cats
 present
 the
 greatest
 risk
 to
 humans.
 Transmission
  of
 rabies
 virus
 usually
 begins
 when
 infected
 saliva
 of
 a
 host
 is
 passed
 to
 an
  uninfected
 animal.
 The
 most
 common
 from
 of
 rabies
 transmission
 is
 through
  the
 bite
 and
 virus-­‐containing
 saliva
 of
 an
 infected
 host.
 Though
 transmission
  has
 been
 rarely
 documented
 via
 other
 routes
 such
 as
 contamination
 of
 eyes,
  nose
 or
 mouth,
 it
 has
 been
 documented
 with
 organ
 transplantations.
 
 


  Symptom
 (s)
 

  The
 initial
 symptoms
 of
 rabies
 are
 often
 vague,
 and
 it
 can
 be
 easy
 to
 mistake
  them
 for
 other,
 less
 serious
 types
 of
 infection.
 They
 include:
 
• • • • • • • • • •

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