Water Crisis in Pakistan
Water is one of the most important natural resource and the major driving force for any economy. God has blessed Pakistan with abandoned water resources. As a result of this natural resource, today we have the world’s largest irrigation system that irrigates over 16 million hectors of land.
Basically we have two major sources of water i.e. surface water & ground water.
In surface water we have three hydrologic units.
(a) Indus Basin River
In 1960 Pakistan signed a water treaty “Indus water treaty” with India.Now the Indus river basin constitutes of the mountain basins Indus plain, Karachi plains and desert areas of ...view middle of the document...
UTILIZATION OF WATER
In Pakistan we utilize the water available to us for different purposes.
Out of 240.22 maf, 172.21 maf water is utilized for irrigation purposes as shown on the view foil
(b) Power generation
The reservoirs are operated on priority bases only for irrigation. However some part of water storage is used for power generation.
Most of the rural and urban water is supplied from ground water through tube wells and hand pumps except few cities. Net consumption is normally about 2% of the total water available.
Water is also utilized in Industries basically for cooling purposes and also in manufacturing processes. This utility is less than 1%.
Current Situation in Pakistan:
Only a few decades ago, Pakistan was considered to have abundance of good quality water. Pakistan is now towards a serious shortage of water. Per capita water availability at the time of creation of Pakistan was 5,600 cubic metres, but it currently stands at only 1,000 cubic metres, placing Pakistan among water-scarce countries.
* Pakistan to face 31% water shortage by 2025
* Water shortage has badly affected the agricultural sector of Pakistan. 64 % Pakistanis depend on agriculture and 60-70 % of exports depend on it.
* On the other hand, it has increased livestock, wildlife and human beings mortality rates and damaged the wildlife and fish habitats.
* There are also some social impacts of water crisis in Pakistan, which have mainly involved public safety, health problems, and conflicts between the provinces over water usage.
The national water strategy must be based upon two essential elements covering
* Water developments
* Water management
The water development strategy is largely based upon construction of new storage reservoirs where as the water management strategy will help in...