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Web Developer Interview Q&A Essay

3877 words - 16 pages


What is XML, and why has it gained so much momentum?

XML, or Extensible Markup Language, is an excellent way of representing data in a structured format. The most popular application of XML is for data-exchange. Like HTML, XML is also a textual, tag-based "markup" language. However, unlike HTML, which has a fixed set of tags and focuses on "presentation", XML does not have any fixed set of tags, and XML is all about "data". It is possible to create our own tags, and write data inside these tags in an XML document. The XML data is structured in a hierarchical format, and there are many "parsers" available that allow easily getting to the data values. In addition to ...view middle of the document...

Average Answer
Defines XML acronym correctly with at least one characteristic. States at least one success reason.

Below Average Answer
Defines XML acronym correctly, but provides no other information.

What is the difference between well-formed and valid XML document?

W3C, in the XML specification, has defined certain rules that need to be followed while creating XML documents. The examples of such rules include: having exactly one root element, proper nesting (XML elements must be closed in the order they are opened), having end-tag for each start- tag, using single/double quotes for attribute values, and so on. If an XML document follows all these rules, it is said to be well-formed document and XML parsers can be used to parse and process such documents.

Document Type Definitions (DTDs) or XML Schemas can be used to define the structure and content of a specific class of XML documents. This includes the parent-child relationship details, attribute lists, data type information, value restrictions, etc. In addition to the well-formedness rules, if an XML document also follows the rules specified in the associated DTD/Schema, it is said to be a valid XML document. All valid XML documents are well-formed; but the reverse is not always true, that is, well-formed XML documents do not necessarily have to be valid.

Above Average Answer
States at least two of the well-formed rules. States both rules of validity.

Average Answer
States at least one of the well-formed rules. States at least one rule of validity.

Below Average Answer
Doesn’t have an answer

What is the use of Namespaces in XML?

As XML does not predefine any set of tags/attribute names. Hence, it is quite possible that two totally different XML documents, defined by two totally different people/ companies, use the same tag name/attribute name. If an application needs to use (merge, process, etc.) above two XML documents together, this would cause confusion and we need a way to distinguish deterministically between tags with the same name. XML Namespaces are used for this purpose. Namespaces are defined using URI (Uniform Resource Identifier), and then associated with the element/attribute names. Namespaces are also used to "group" a logically related set of XML vocabulary.

Above Average Answer
States that a namespace distinguishes uniqueness in naming for one document and discusses URI.

Average Answer
States that a namespace distinguishes uniqueness in naming for one document.

Below Average Answer
Doesn’t have an answer

What is XPath?

XML Path Language (XPath) is a W3C specification that defines syntax for addressing parts of XML document. XML document is considered as a logical tree structure, and syntax based on this consideration is used to address elements and attributes at any level in the XML document.

What is XSLT? And what's its use?

XSL Transformations (XSLT) is yet another...

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