This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Well Integrity Essay

3457 words - 14 pages


Well Integrity: Hydraulic
Fracturing & Well ConstructionWhat are the Factual Risks?
George E. King
Apache Corporation
SPE Webinar
5 November 2013

• Invented in era of 1943 to 1947 by Standard Oil of
Indiana (Stanolin => Pan American => Amoco).
• Fully commercial by 1954.
• First multi-fractured deviated wells in 1975.
• Million pound sand jobs in mid 1970’s
• Million gallon fracs in mid 1980’s.
• Horizontal multi-fractured shale wells in 1988.
• Over 1 million jobs completed by mid 1990’s.
• About 2 million jobs completed by 2012.



Oil and Gas Development – The Stages
1. Assessment – is it worth drilling?

Seismic, outcrops, ...view middle of the document...

To the public, fracturing is the entirety of well development.



Slide 7

Risk = Frequency of
Occurrence vs. Impact
Risk exists in every action.
What is operationally safe?
Occurrence & impact create a
threat level that we can
understand & accept or reject
based on what we believe:
hopefully on assessment of facts.

What does the public
think is safe?

Completed Well - How Many Barriers are Typical?

SPE 166142
SPE 166142, Barrier vs. Well Failure, King

How Much Cement is Needed for Isolation?
Every inch of cement is NOT required to be perfect.

Slide 9

Quality of cement
Over 10,000 psi can be held with less than 50 ft of
more important than cement, but 200 to 300 ft is routinely used.
Isolation can only be
measured with a
pressure test.
Bond logs not always
best tool
~10% channels
(smallest) missed.
Instances of false



But Where You Put Cement is Even More Important!

Failure to seal off gas charged shales & coals creates
high annular pressures.
Cement to Surface
on all strings??
Poor Design

Better Design

Barrier Failure or Well Integrity Failure?

Single Barrier Failure => No Leak Path? => No Well Integrity Failure
Unless All Barriers Fail, A Leak Will Not Happen

Wells are Designed with Multiple Barriers.
Number of Barriers Depends on the Hazard Level.

Groundwater Hazard If
Well Integrity Lost

Typical Number



1 to 2


Low to Moderate

2 to 4

Very Low

1 to 2



Mid Depth

SPE 166142



Frac to Surface?

Less than 1 chance in a million

Fracturing Risk Evaluation Frac Ruptures Surf Csg? Less than 1 chance in 100,000
Earth Quake > 5.0
Less than 1 chance in a million
=> Very Small Risks
Spills Diesel at surface
About 1 chance in 10,000?
To Groundwater Highest Risks are Transport, Some from Well Construction
1.Spill clean fresh or salt water
2.Spill biocide
3.Spill dry additives
4.Spill of diesel from truck wreck
5.Spill of diesel -wrecked re-fueler
6.Spill frac tank water, no adds
7.Spill frac tank water w/adds
8.Spill diesel fuel while re-fueling
9.Spill of frac tank -flowback water
10. Frac press ruptures surface casing
11. Cooling pulls tubing out of packer
(casing maintains integrity)
12. Mud channel, well < 2000 ft
13. Mud channel, well > 2000 ft
14. Intersects well in the pay zone
15. Intersect properly abandoned well
16. Intersects improper abandoned well
17. Frac to surface through rock, well
greater than 2000 ft deep.
18. Earthquake, mag. >5.0
19. Frac intersects a natural seep
20. Emissions > background
21. Normal frac operation – no

Full Details in
SPE 152596

Frac height growth in four
thousand jobs – not even
close to water
(Reprinted from the July 2010 issue of The American Oil & Gas Reporter with permission from Pinnacle, A Halliburton...

Other Essays Like Well Integrity

Heritage Convention Essay

862 words - 4 pages urban structure that demonstrated cultural influences. - Unique and rare historical living heritage. The criteria for authenticity and integrity indicated the following aspects: - - Safeguarding the towns identify by preserving its Swahili culture and its buildings, some dating to the 15th century presently the building fabric is relatively well maintained and the social – cultural practices still in place. - The inhabitants of Lamu

Pinnacle Case Study 2

970 words - 4 pages Pinnacle Case Project: Part 2 1. a. Likelihood of financial difficulties: The two articles mentioned bring up concerns over whether Pinnacle can rely on sales of solar powered engines. These articles imply that Pinnacle may not have the capabilities needed to perform well in that industry. Also, if EPA regulations are postponed, Pinnacle’s customers will not have as much reason to switch to solar powered engines. b. Acceptable Audit Risk

Ethical Integrity in the Workplace

2629 words - 11 pages integrity in the workplace, the results are mixed, and indicate a number of challenges to business leaders. It should be of great concern that only half of American working adults believe their senior executives are people of high integrity. Only slightly more (fifty-six percent) feel that integrity policies have been well communicated in their workplaces or that there is little pressure to cut corners on ethics/compliance issues.” (Marr, 2001

Education And Expectation

539 words - 3 pages Personality and character should flourish in intellectual life as well as in social life, and there should be no divide between school work and expressing youth and creativity. What one finds on the average college campus is disheartening but understandable: it is the meeting of young minds abandoning the classroom and attempting to flourish after hours, where individual character is ok to display but where it is seldom supported by a healthy

Student Values

1261 words - 6 pages academic career. We must honor the Student Code of Conduct, as well as live by the Student Code of Academic Integrity, and we must utilize the universities computing and communication resources acceptably. In the University of Phoenix Catalog The Student Code of Conduct states, “Students are expected to conduct themselves ethically, honestly, and with integrity as responsible members of the University’s academic community. This requires the

Self Analysis

832 words - 4 pages that leadership is constantly evolving. The best teacher of leadership is life itself as well as being a servant. You take what you’ve learned and apply it. If you fail, you assess the situation and try again. A good leader must continuously analyze yourself to allow positive change and development to ensure the opportunity to build better relationships with others. They’re several theories on what characteristics a leader should posses. However, I

Heroes of Cinema

574 words - 3 pages homeless man give away his food to small children who are suffering from starvation. However, people think donating money is an act of compassion, instead why not go to your local food bank and serving homeless people homeless people for the day. Volunteering your time for the greater well-being is true integrity, such as firefighting, big brother/big sister programs, and even ringing a bell for local salvation armies to raise money. A hero does not

Ethics Assignment: Code of Conduct Comparison & Academic Honesty

579 words - 3 pages breach of the code of conduct may accrue severe punishment in accordance with the institutional policies. To begin with, certified accountant body emphasizes on integrity (IMA code of conduct). This means that the certified accountants are expected to be in their best behavior as far as organizational policies are concerned. Navarro College also expects the students to remain worthwhile students by complying with the dressing code for instance


922 words - 4 pages check the work prior to it being sent. Anything containing typos or misspellings shows that the fourth principle was not used by our IT specialist. Normally, as an assistant in the IT department from time to time, I will email things to myself (personal email) to ensure it has not been compromised. I think this step enhances the security and integrity as well as the accuracy of the data being sent. Researching for this assignment I found that the


2385 words - 10 pages Question 1: Williams thinks that the doctrine of negative responsibility, which follows from the principle of utility, undermines personal integrity. Do you agree that being held responsible for the consequences of not acting, of failing to prevent something, will (always or sometimes) erode the idea of personal integrity? Is there any way to be a utilitarian and still respect the integrity of individuals? Integrity is the honesty and

Ethics in Management

536 words - 3 pages integrity is very important in many aspects and is crucial to your business’s reputation. Managers also need to be fair to their stakeholders. Prices need to be fair, salaries need to be fair, also opportunities need to be fair. If your business does not have fair prices, fair pay, and the opportunity to succeed and work through the ranks, your business will not do well. Another struggle for some managers is communication. If a manager does

Related Papers

Leadership 100 Essay

595 words - 3 pages follower. They will fight for what they believe in, and do so in an honest and genuine manner. They will voice their opinion even if everyone will disagree with them. Someone with integrity will have great morals, ethics, and virtue, as well as stand up for what they believe in. They will not roll over and just go with what everyone else says. In essence, integrity to me is most closely associated with being honest and genuine. Someone with integrity will have great ethics, morals, be virtuous, and stand up for what they believe in even if it will make them unpopular. They are leaders, not followers.

Integrity And How It Effects Me

1295 words - 6 pages . Important items such as tools, weapons, first aid kits which are high dollar items may go missing. Even just simple things such as bandages or helicopter supplies will go missing. When it comes time to use that item and it is missing it may be a life or death situation that the person may have not intended to happen. Having self worth is part of integrity. If you have no self worth then no else has any in you as well, and you could be capable of doing anything or you may get blamed for something that you didn’t have anything to do with, but no one will believe you because of your lack of integrity.

Integrity, The Importance Essay

528 words - 3 pages well as a team that has more trust for each other. The army is built on team work and values, integrity is one of the many cogs in a working machine right next to trust and without those parts the machine falls to operate fluidly. If we fail to operate fluidly than the army would not be the mighty feared force we are, in essence the United States of America would not be as powerful as it is. Integrity is an integral part of everybody's

Integrity/Crucible Essay

753 words - 4 pages life. Abigail is a character of exceedingly low integrity, not only does she lie, she does it very frequently. This shows that lying is a major part of her character and every day way of life. Since she continually lies she has little to no integrity. Also, another example of weak integrity is portrayed well through the character of Mary Warren. Mary had been accused of being a witch by Abigail and instead of continuously telling the truth