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Well Integrity Essay

3457 words - 14 pages

11/4/2013

Well Integrity: Hydraulic
Fracturing & Well ConstructionWhat are the Factual Risks?
George E. King
Apache Corporation
SPE Webinar
5 November 2013

History
• Invented in era of 1943 to 1947 by Standard Oil of
Indiana (Stanolin => Pan American => Amoco).
• Fully commercial by 1954.
• First multi-fractured deviated wells in 1975.
• Million pound sand jobs in mid 1970’s
• Million gallon fracs in mid 1980’s.
• Horizontal multi-fractured shale wells in 1988.
• Over 1 million jobs completed by mid 1990’s.
• About 2 million jobs completed by 2012.

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Oil and Gas Development – The Stages
1. Assessment – is it worth drilling?

Seismic, outcrops, ...view middle of the document...

To the public, fracturing is the entirety of well development.

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Slide 7

Risk = Frequency of
Occurrence vs. Impact
Risk exists in every action.
What is operationally safe?
Occurrence & impact create a
threat level that we can
understand & accept or reject
based on what we believe:
hopefully on assessment of facts.

What does the public
think is safe?

Completed Well - How Many Barriers are Typical?

SPE 166142
SPE 166142, Barrier vs. Well Failure, King

How Much Cement is Needed for Isolation?
Every inch of cement is NOT required to be perfect.

Slide 9

Quality of cement
Over 10,000 psi can be held with less than 50 ft of
more important than cement, but 200 to 300 ft is routinely used.
volume.
Isolation can only be
measured with a
pressure test.
Bond logs not always
best tool
~10% channels
(smallest) missed.
Instances of false
negatives.

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But Where You Put Cement is Even More Important!

Failure to seal off gas charged shales & coals creates
high annular pressures.
Cement to Surface
on all strings??
Poor Design

Better Design

Barrier Failure or Well Integrity Failure?

Single Barrier Failure => No Leak Path? => No Well Integrity Failure
Unless All Barriers Fail, A Leak Will Not Happen

Wells are Designed with Multiple Barriers.
Number of Barriers Depends on the Hazard Level.
ZONE

Groundwater Hazard If
Well Integrity Lost

Typical Number
Barriers

Above
Surface

Low

1 to 2

Fresh
Water

Low to Moderate

2 to 4

Very Low

1 to 2

Lowest

1

Mid Depth
Deep

SPE 166142

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Frac to Surface?

Less than 1 chance in a million

Fracturing Risk Evaluation Frac Ruptures Surf Csg? Less than 1 chance in 100,000
Earth Quake > 5.0
Less than 1 chance in a million
=> Very Small Risks
Spills Diesel at surface
About 1 chance in 10,000?
To Groundwater Highest Risks are Transport, Some from Well Construction
1.Spill clean fresh or salt water
2.Spill biocide
3.Spill dry additives
4.Spill of diesel from truck wreck
5.Spill of diesel -wrecked re-fueler
6.Spill frac tank water, no adds
7.Spill frac tank water w/adds
8.Spill diesel fuel while re-fueling
9.Spill of frac tank -flowback water
10. Frac press ruptures surface casing
11. Cooling pulls tubing out of packer
(casing maintains integrity)
12. Mud channel, well < 2000 ft
13. Mud channel, well > 2000 ft
14. Intersects well in the pay zone
15. Intersect properly abandoned well
16. Intersects improper abandoned well
17. Frac to surface through rock, well
greater than 2000 ft deep.
18. Earthquake, mag. >5.0
19. Frac intersects a natural seep
20. Emissions > background
21. Normal frac operation – no
problems.

Full Details in
SPE 152596

Frac height growth in four
thousand jobs – not even
close to water
(Reprinted from the July 2010 issue of The American Oil & Gas Reporter with permission from Pinnacle, A Halliburton...

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