Central bank is one of a financial institution, they control monetary policy of country and also has several mandates are involve issue national currency, control credit supply, ensure financial system stability and preserve the currency value. Central bank can act as government of banker and lender to other banks (Central Bank Guide, 2015).
5 different central banks
Name | Japan | United Kingdom | Australia | New Zealand | Malaysia |
Governor | Haruhiko Kuroda | Mark Carney | Glenn Stevens | Graeme Wheeler | Zeti Akhtar Aziz |
Established | June 1882 | July 1694 | January 1960 | 1934 | January 1959 |
Currency | Japanese Yen | Pound Sterling | Australian Dollar | New ...view middle of the document...
They also set the stability price target of 2% to push up the inflation target (Bank of Japan, 2015). However, this would keep on increase the money supply and accompanied depreciation of yen, it would influence the currency rate become fluctuate (OECD, 2015). | The government increased GST from 5 percent to 8 percent in 2014. This would influence to reduce consumption, decline of economic growth and also investment drop. However, government using the tax money to enhance the number of pensioners for the aging population and provide subsidy for low-income households (Bank of Japan, 2015). |
United kingdom | Bank of England set to maintain the interest rate at 0.50%. It can helping household spending due to they support the lower energy price and food. This can increase consumer confidence as help to higher productivity and wage growth. Thus, Inflation rate would slight decrease because it reflect lower price for beverages, food and transport. (Bank of England, 2015). | Government offer too much benefit for their citizen such as health services, pensions and so on, Since from 2011 start government increase to 20% of VAT (Value Add Tax) to cover their spend. But government reduced 5% of VAT offer domestic fuel, domestic renovations etc. This would help to increase of economic growth. Besides that, government maintain the VAT until 2014, from the 2014 the domestic demand, consumption and investment are all increased because they adapt to the VAT (OECD, 2015). |
Australia | Reserve Bank of Australia set an interest rate for unchanged at 2% (moderate). They want to predict the inflation to remain consistent with the target, which is helping to maintain the value of the currency and protect the saving of Australians. However, this would lead to lower exchange rate due reserve bank of Australia loosen its monetary. (Reserve Bank of Australia, 2015). | Government set a GST rate of 10% in 2000. Although Government take the GST money to focus more expend on ageing and health. The GST rate maintain until 2014, the government more focus on their citizens. Thus, consumption increase because customers consume is worth it and as the increase of economic growth (BCA, 2013). |
New Zealand | Bank of New Zealand set a low interest rate in 2015, with significant in bond rates and local swap. But this would lead to increase house cost, strong household income...