Will Tv Succumb To The Internet

5958 words - 24 pages

Environ Sci Pollut Res
DOI 10.1007/s11356-014-2974-9


Determination of lead(II) sorption capacity of hazelnut shell
and activated carbon obtained from hazelnut shell activated
with ZnCl2
Aziz Şencan & Mustafa Karaboyacı & Mehmet Kılıç

Received: 26 November 2013 / Accepted: 23 April 2014
# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Abstract This study aimed to determine the Pb+2 adsorption
capacities of hazelnut shell and activated carbon obtained
from hazelnut shell. It also aimed to determine the effect of
ZnCl2 in the activation process. The hazelnut was pyrolyzed at
250 and 700 °C. For ...view middle of the document...

M. Kılıç
Department of Environmental Engineering, Süleyman Demirel
University, Isparta, Turkey

In the last two centuries, along with the mankind’s increasing
industrial activities, elements and metals have been used intensively. Therefore, it can be said that the heavy metal contamination is also known for this period of time. Because of
the increasing industrial development and the usage of metals
for various activities of humanity, the environmental health is
being seriously threatened. In terms of the environment, the
metals especially like Cd, Cr, Pb, and Hg, because of their
tendency to accumulate, have toxic and inhibition effects on
living organisms (Forster and Wase 1997). Lead has acute and
chronic effects on people. Especially, it damages the liver and
the stomach in a short time and the brain and the kidney in a
long period of time (Tchobannoglous et al. 2002). That is why
developing new methods to control the environmental metal
contamination and sending the heavy metals out of water
supplies is needed.
One ion’s or molecule’s accumulation in another phase’s
surface or its gaps is called adsorption. The material that
accumulates is called as adsorbate, and the solid that adsorbs
is called adsorbent. The liquid’s concentration in one solid’s
micro cracks on its surface or pores is called as capillary
adsorption. Adsorption phenomena depend on the materials
which will be adsorbed, concentration in the solution. Beside
this, the agents like temperature, pH, amount of adsorbent
material, and mixing speed are the factors that effect the
adsorption (Öztürk 2006).
Activated carbons are composites which have an outstanding inner surface area and volume of pores, and generally
contain 87–97 % of carbon which has nonuniformed surface
form. And the rest of it may contain hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur,
and nitrogen. There may be useless materials in activated
carbon at the rate of 5 to 20, but these materials should be
abducted before usage. This process is called as decreasing the
content of ash and in usage as adsorbents and this content

Environ Sci Pollut Res

should be taken in 0.1–0.2 % rate (Choma et al. 1987).
Activated carbons are used in various industries for different
goals. Because it is a good adsorbent, it is used in wide areas
like purification and refinement of the activated carbon gases,
treatment of water and wastewater, carbon contribution to
metal industry, making protective wearing in the defense
industry, making bombs for silencing the explosive and electronic systems in weapon industry, and also in the health
sector. As a result, the activated carbon that we use for different goals in our daily life is an indispensable material (Stoeckli
and Kraehenbuehl 1984). Activated carbon in liquid or gas
phase is used for the adsorption of various materials. It can
adsorb a lot of different molecules in it is inner surface
(Jaroniec and Choma 1986). In an ideal...

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